BBC - Religions - Hinduism: Hindu concepts
One's karmic state affects the reincarnation of the soul: good karma may lead to to behave righteously according to Dharma—the moral order of the universe. and perpetuates systems of social organization prescribed in Hindu scriptures. how would you define Dharma, Karma and Moksha, and how do these the origins of these beliefs and is a belief in reincarnation necessary?. Hinduism - Karma, samsara, and moksha: Hindus generally accept the doctrine of The designation of Hinduism as sanatana dharma emphasizes this goal of maintaining personal for example, was content to regard marriage as the female equivalent of initiation into the In scripture: Scriptures in non-Western religions.
This claim raises more than a few philosophical objections such as how anything can exist with no qualitiesbut our concern is the relation of nondualism to reincarnation.
If all is one and if duality is an illusion, then there are no particular entities and, thus, no individual selves that are different from other selves or from Brahman. If so, then there is no material available to be reincarnated. If you have but one player, you cannot have a team or compete against a team. If all is one, without a second, then reincarnation cannot even get started. For Hinduism, the goal is to get free from the wheel of rebirth and to attain enlightenment or moksha.
Yet if all is one, if there is no dualism, then there is no wheel of rebirth from which to be freed. Everyone is already one with the One; therefore, reincarnation is neither necessary nor even possible. Nondualistic Hinduism denies the existence of finite, individual selves, since all is one. Reincarnation and karma require the existence of finite, individual selves for their operation. Therefore, given the worldview of nondualism, reincarnation and karma are false.
Buddhism suffers a similar problem, although its worldview differs from nondualism. For Buddhism, the self, considered as a unified substance existing over time, is a fiction. We are, rather, a collection of changing parts without a continuing essence. We are like a chariot, which is nothing but a contingent collection of parts. No part of the chariot is its essence and the parts need no essence to make up a chariot.
We must free ourselves from all desire by following the way of the Buddha and eventually leave the wheel of reincarnation.
However, there are no spokes on the wheel of reincarnation.
- Logical and Biblical Defeaters of Reincarnation and Karma
- Hindu concepts
- Rebirth (Buddhism)
But since there is no substantial person, there is no one there to be reincarnated. If you are a contingent configuration of changing parts without a unifying whole, you are neither a self in this life or the next. Buddhists do not believe that there is a soul that takes on a new body from life to life. There is no soul anywhere to be found. Here is the argument. Buddhism teaches that humans are aggregations of changing parts and, thus, have no enduring soul.
Buddhism affirms karma and rebirth. An enduring self is necessary to establish continuity between one lifetime and another one so that karma has something on which to attach. Therefore aBuddhism has no basis to affirm karma and rebirth.
It cannot ensure justice because, as I have argued, the system itself cannot work, given its assumptions. Reincarnation is a sad wheel of birth, death, and rebirth that one should escape through enlightenment.
The message of Jesus Christ is quite different. He taught that no one can keep the moral law that is written on the heart see Rom. By nature, we know the basics of morality, as C. Lewis argued and illustrated so powerfully in The Abolition of Man. Yet our response to what we know is something else again. The human heart the core of the person is impure because of wrong attitudes and actions.
Thus it is no surprise that human beings have struggled with guilt through all time and in every place. Jesus saw to the heart of the matter.
What shall we conclude then? Do we have any advantage? For we have already made the charge that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under the power of sin.
relationship between Dharma, Karma and Moksha?
As it is written: All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one. Yet Jesus never spoke of reincarnation as a way out of this prison.
Rather, Jesus affirmed that people would receive either eternal reward or eternal punishment according to how they responded to Him during their one lifetime on Earth Matt.
Reincarnation is not an option. But Jesus has offered Himself as the way of escape. There will be a resurrection of the just and the unjust Dan. Jesus proclaimed that He came into the world to seek and to save what was lost Luke Through His ministry of teaching, preaching, healing, and casting out demons, He demonstrated a sinless and perfect life, as well as the power over death itself by raising the dead see John He did not leave us to determine our own fate.
He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.
Jesus manifested forgiving love even on His own bloodstained cross. A thief on the cross next to Jesus confessed his sin and asked Jesus to remember him. Brahmacarya - 'celibate student' stage in which males learned the Veda grihastha - 'householder' in which the twice born male can experience the human purposes purushartha of responsibility, wealth, and sexual pleasure Vanaprastha - 'hermit' or 'wilderness dweller' in which the twice born male retires from life in the world to take up pilgrimage and religious observances along with his wife Samnyasa - 'renunciation' in which the twice born gives up the world, takes on a saffron robe or, in some sects, goes naked, with a bowl and a staff to seek moksha liberation or develop devotion Correct action in accordance with dharma is also understood as service to humanity and to God.
The idea of what has become known as sanatana dharma can be traced back to the puranas. It is often associated with bhakti movements, who propose that we are all eternal servants of a personal Deity, thus advocating each act, word, and deed to be acts of devotion. In the 19th Century the concept of sanatana dharma was used by some groups to advocate a unified view of Hinduism.
Rebirth (Buddhism) - Wikipedia
Good or virtuous actions, actions in harmony with dharma, will have good reactions or responses and bad actions, actions against dharma, will have the opposite effect. In Hinduism karma operates not only in this lifetime but across lifetimes: Hindus believe that human beings can create good or bad consequences for their actions and might reap the rewards of action in this life, in a future human rebirth or reap the rewards of action in a heavenly or hell realm in which the self is reborn for a period of time.
This process of reincarnation is called samsara, a continuous cycle in which the soul is reborn over and over again according to the law of action and reaction. At death many Hindus believe the soul is carried by a subtle body into a new physical body which can be a human or non-human form an animal or divine being.
The goal of liberation moksha is to make us free from this cycle of action and reaction, and from rebirth. Purushartha Purushartha Hinduism developed a doctrine that life has different goals according to a person's stage of life and position. These goals became codified in the 'goals of a person' or 'human goals', the purusharthas, especially in sacred texts about dharma called 'dharma shastras' of which the 'Laws of Manu' is the most famous.
In these texts three goals of life are expressed, namely virtuous living or dharma, profit or worldly success, and pleasure, especially sexual pleasure as a married householder and more broadly aesthetic pleasure.
A fourth goal of liberation moksha was added at a later date. The purusharthas express an understanding of human nature, that people have different desires and purposes which are all legitimate in their context. Over the centuries there has been discussion about which goal was most important. Towards the end of the Mahabharata Shantiparvan Vidura claims that dharma is most important because through it the sages enter the absolute reality, on dharma the universe rests, and through dharma wealth is acquired.
One of the brothers, Arjuna, disagrees, claiming that dharma and pleasure rest on profit. Another brother, Bhima, argues for pleasure or desire being the most important goal, as only through desire have the sages attained liberation. This discussion recognises the complexity and varied nature of human purposes and meanings in life.
Brahman and God Brahman Brahman is a Sanskrit word which refers to a transcendent power beyond the universe. As such, it is sometimes translated as 'God' although the two concepts are not identical. Brahman is the power which upholds and supports everything. According to some Hindus this power is identified with the self atman while others regard it as distinct from the self.
Most Hindus agree that Brahman pervades everything although they do not worship Brahman. Some Hindus regard a particular deity or deities as manifestations of Brahman.
God Most Hindus believe in God but what this means varies in different traditions. The Sanskrit words Bhagavan and Ishvara mean 'Lord' or 'God' and indicate an absolute reality who creates, sustains and destroys the universe over and over again.
It is too simplistic to define Hinduism as belief in many gods or 'polytheism'. Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God, whose qualities and forms are represented by the multitude of deities which emanate from him. God, being unlimited, can have unlimited forms and expressions. The patisandhi-citta is the first citta of a new life and thus its cause can only be in the past. Some modern Buddhists have taken this position.
The American monk Thanissaro Bhikkhu has argued for the acceptance of the Buddhist idea of rebirth as a type of pragmatic wager argument Pali: Thanissaro argues that "the Buddha stated that it's a safe wager to assume that actions bear results that can affect not only this lifetime for also lifetimes after this than it is to assume the opposite.
The Buddha's main pragmatic argument is that if one accepted his teachings, one would be likely to pay careful attention to one's actions, so as to do no harm.
This in and of itself is a worthy activity regardless of whether the rest of the path was true. When applying this argument to the issue of rebirth and karmic results, the Buddha sometimes coupled it with a second pragmatic argument that resembles Pascal's wager: