Asade, B.K. R. (). Language, literature and national omarcafini.info Language, Literature and Linguistics in the 21st Century Kaduna NCCE Publication. The Relationship between Language and National Development. Unit 3: Language and Nigerian National Development Objectives. Unit 4: Language in a . the relevance of "national development" for linguistic analysis and on the other hand to between the standardform or forms of a language and all other varieties of it. This difference may be very small or-very great independently of the other.
It reveals a very strong role of the state and government in managing the language and culture and affecting the shape of social relations.
Language as a core element of culture becomes a major factor contributing to the sense of national identity. Language changes and evolves from the bottom up, and frequently connected by the actions of the politics — mainly through language policy.
The Role of Language in Nation-Building Process «
Language policy and language planning should not be treated as one topic. Linguistic culture is defined as a set of behaviors, assumptions, cultural forms, prejudices, folk belief system, attitudes, stereotypes, ways of thinking about language, and religion-historical circumstances related to a language. The basic notion postulated by Schiffman is that language policy is grounded in linguistic culture Schiffman As it was mentioned, language is a means of communication and also a system of signs and symbols.
Language should be treated and perceived broadly as an open system which influences and is influenced by nonlinguistic factors. Language is perceived as an important element of socialization, individual and collective, provides knowledge about feeling, aspirations. It seems clear that there is a distinction among language practices, language ideology and language policy.
The use of the linguistic repertoire by community is defined as a language practices. Language ideology is understood as an expression of the perceptions concerning language and its use. Language policy is government instrument, the means by which polity attempt to influence or to shape the language itself. Indonesia — language and national unity Every country in Southeast Asia since its independence has been coping with ethnic tension, social stability and national unity issues.
These three elements have been blended and affecting each other. It is important for a country which just regained its independence to begin the process of building national unity which may determine the development of a nation. In Indonesia, before the independence, it was estimated that there were over three hundred traditional and ethnic groups.
Afterwards there was political tension, dispute among local ethnic groups creating chaos which became a threat to the national unity Adhuri Indonesia had been more than three hundred years under the domination of the Dutch; therefore many ethnic, cultural or political issues may refer to this history. Though Indonesia was colonized by the Netherlands as a whole, there was no statehood until the late forties of the twentieth century Vickers However, under the rule of the Dutch, Indonesians began to perceive themselves as a nation.
Japanese attacked Indonesia in served as the impetus for the national movements that began to expand and strengthen, leading to the Indonesian Revolution completed by the declaration of independence Vickers Innovative ideas began to appear mostly in Java and Sumatra.
Basically, two types of ideas arose concerning with the organization and the concept of identity. The first idea is focused on the issues of leadership, while the other one is based on social, religious, political and economic concerns. The leaders can be divided into two groups: Insecond Youth Congress was organized by the student communities. The concept of Indonesian identity was not yet present, but it appeared in a stronger form as a result of the congress.
The delegates took the oath, but more importantly they came from different ethnic, religious, cultural and affirmed the existence of one country. The idea of one language and one nation reflected a process of forming self-awareness.
Both were focused largely on the consolidation of this identification Simpson b: The problem of determining national language in Indonesia appeared with the beginning of the formation of nationalist movements in the first decade of the twentieth century.
This issue has been a challenge for all postcolonial state, the decision about the national language has its political, social and cultural consequences. There were several possibilities: In the case of Indonesia, there was some choice of three languages: It was decided to discard all previous considered language and to accept the Indonesian language as the national language, language based upon the Malay language see Nugroho Dutch language was rejected since the adoption of a foreign language would be a symbolic gesture of maintaining a relationship.
Javanese language was discarded due to the fear that the sense of favoring the largest ethnic group in Indonesia can become an obstacle to the unification of the nation.
Indonesia is an archipelago country which consists of around 13, islands.
Indonesian geography in some sense reflects the diversity of the nation, plurality of ethnic groups, cultures, and languages. The people of Indonesia, at present totally more than millionspeak a large number of languages. It is estimated there are over languages in Indonesia. In The National Language Institute, the institutional predecessor of the present National Center for Language Development in Jakarta indicated number of languages.
It was estimated there were languages in Irian Jaya and National Language Institute listed languages in this province Nabanan As the national language, it serves as the only official language in Indonesia.
Indonesian language is based on Malay language; however it has its own originality what was essential for independent state and from the beginning it has been treated as an instrument of connecting all ethnic groups in Indonesia see Sneddon The National Center for Language Development of the Ministry of Education and Culture as the main institution for the development of language has been protecting Bahasa Indonesia from strong regionalisms and localisms Nabanan From the national central point, it is important due to linguistic diversity see Laitin Indonesian languages may be divided into three classes: The census showed the proportion of the number of speakers: The figure for the vernacular language showed the percentage of speakers who did not speak Bahasa Indonesia at all Nabanan Indonesian government believed that the adoption and development of a national language is an essential feature of nationhood.
If the national language is not introduced, our country will be devoid of a unified character and personality — as I could put it, a nation without a soul and without life. Israel— language and national construction Hebrew language was spoken in ancient Israel, from the era of the Babylonian exile; however, it began to come out of general use, and became a dead language.
Hebrew was used only in prayers during the ceremony and in religious texts. In everyday life, the Jews used other languages: At the end of the nineteenth century, due to the efforts of Eliezer ben Yehuda — reviver of the Hebrew language — modern version of the Hebrew language started to be created.
The history of the Hebrew language can be divided into several periods: It was the period from to BCE although as a written language, it remained to be used for more than two centuries; 3 Rabbinic Hebrew Rabbinic was dated since the fourth century BCE or at least since BCE until the middle of the second century CE.
Those sections that have severed relations with their tribe eventually began to speak a bit different from their former kinsmen This split in tribes led to splits in their languages Where people working together even though they are not of the same ethnic background, but because of the speaking of other languages which is not their own, they can communicate without using English language. Language diversity brings unity, increase awareness, it foster understanding and encourages partnership both economically and politically.
The first problem of language diversity is that, it kills indigenous language, it causes regional variations in language, it destroys the tendencies of Lingua Franca and there will be no ethnic unity. When a society has many languages and dialects like the tower of Babel, mutual understanding becomes very difficult. This has been one of the causes of bitterness and suspicion in almost every part of Nigeria, as what one says, is often misinterpreted and misunderstood by his neighbours It also breeds faviouritsm, nepotism, tribalism and other social ills which will result to disunity, because many in Nigeria have the propensity to favour their own linguistic group No wonder, it is a common place to see and hear people greeting an occupant of an office in their native language in an attempt to win favour.
The ethnic minorities in the multi-ethnic Nigerian nation have suddenly found fresh zeal to express their long standing grievances. National development is one of the improvement in a country, is an umbrella term which is used to mean a situation where we can adequately utilize our diverse resources. Most times, it could be natural or human resources with the aim of benefiting things. It is a situation where people have the resource at their disposal to have a meaningful development, the people may be from different cultural backgrounds with diverse language and different values sentiments are put aside in a bid to work together towards the national development for the betterment and growth of their economy.
Scholars in the field of language have variously defined development, and one of such definitions is that which sees it "as economic growth and social change" Opubor views development in human society as a many sided process.
At the individual's level, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and material well being. The achievement of any of those aspects of personal development is very much tied to the state of the society as a whole. That means national development has much to do with how people are united in a country. And in social development, we see how it has improved the social wellbeing of the citizen especially as a nation.
Although, national development used to be measured in terms of increase in the Gross Domestic Products GDP of a country. Emphasisis now placed on the content of the GDP as well as other indicators of the quality of life to see how and whether our economy has increased or decreased such indicators.
Manley,summarizes development as constitutes about development as it has to do with the development of the productive forces. It has to do with the harnessing of those forces to build viable societies. National development rangesfrom growth in areas of politics, economy, science and technology, education, health and securityand also the aspect of language.
Language plays an important role in national development as it fosters understanding, unity and sense of belonging among the various members of the different ethnic and social groups that constitute a nation. Language development is a multi-disciplinary field that has as its central question how is language learnt because language is highly complex yet universally acquired; the answer to this question has profound implications for understanding the essential nature of the human mind.
Ahmed in his article entitled: It is universally accepted except in most African countries that a child learns best in his mother tongue and that mother tongue is natural to him as the mother's milk.
According to NPEthe government appreciates the importance of language in the educational process and as a means of preserving the people's culture. If this is anything to go by, then Nigeria should be the most respected country in the world, because of her many languages for a nation to function properly she has to choose a national language, this is what Nigeria has failed to do since independence because of her multilingual and multi-ethnic composition.
The mechanisms for implementing national policy on education are only sound, their successes are unrealistic in the face of multiple languages to choose, secondly, the use of all the languages simultaneously is not possible, thirdly, if the choice is easy to make in the rural areas, it is not possible to do that in urban centers because of the multilingual nature of the society that reflects in the society that reflects in the urban schools population. In the face of this dilemma, coupled with the reflection of colonial English, many Nigerians have proposed Pidgin English as an alternative, but pidgin has its own problems.
For one, it lacks standardization ordinarily, the pidgin spoken in Lagos has a Yoruba flavour, while that of Enugu differs from that of Kaduna according to Akinyele, R. But while reviewing it, TaiwoAmodu, the reviewer said "the text, though enduring, generates some linguistic puzzles". Also inone Mr. The observation is thatGUOSA is an amalgamation of words of existing language and that the author fails to indicate that each time we want to form new sentence or pronounce words, we have to run helter skelter, looking for Mr.
His argument was that since "Swahili" is not associated with any ethnic group in Nigeria, the danger of ethnic domination is automatically eliminated Bamgbose, has observed that the superimposition of the proposal is not compatible with the idea of policy of education in mother tongue It is also in the belief that Nigeria would not make any meaningful strides without adoption of an indigenous language, or national official language that calls. Al-batanYerima, called on the federal government to introduce Hausa, Yoruba and lgbo and other languages into institutions of learning with a view to adopting one of them as a national official language.
The motion was seconded by Mr. Eneh who stressed the role of a national language in promoting harmony in "multilingualand multicultural society". The same consideration encouraged M D. Orosanye and Baba Shehu Ibrahim to propose the adoption of Hausa as a language of unity. But these parliamentarians had hardly finished the proposal when opposition reared its ugly head.
The minority ethnic members of the House feared that the majority ethnic groups were planning to dominate the country. Chief Anthony Enahoro, a minority champion vehemently condemned the majority of the proposal extolled the value of English language as a unifying factor. In linguistics, different approaches are used in the study of language. Those approaches include the functional approach, systemic approach, traditional approach and the socio-linguistic approach.
We believe that no one framework can be ideal to a study such as this. Thus, much as we may want to adopt an ecleptic approach to this research, we are however better placed to accommodate or use the ethnography of communication theory whose main proponent is Dell Hymes Babatunde and Adeyanju, n.
According to Dell Hymes in Babatunde and Adeyanju, n. It refers to a speaker's knowledge of what variety of language to use in what situation, how to vary style with the audience addressed, when to speak or remain silent, when and what kinds of gesture are required with what speech.
English began to be formally studied in Nigeria from the middle of the nineteenth century on. It now has a geographical spread throughout the country, as it is used in predominantly formal contexts, such as government, education, literature, business, commerce, media, international communication and as a lingual franca in social interaction among the educated elite.
English as the unifying factor in Nigeria Of the entire heritage left behind in Nigeria by the British at the end of colonial administration, probably, none is more important than the English Language. It is now the language of government, business and commerce, education, the mass media, literature and much internal as well as external communication. English is the most important language of the world being the first language of the United Nations and arguably the only language spoken in all the nations of the world.
English helped in promoting, nurturing and uniting the Nigerian nation over the years and even now, it can be said to be the language of integration in Nigeria. Amidst the compounding complexity of Nigeriaespecially in relation to the language question, the only language that indexes the spirit of togetherness is English.
More often than not, activities conducted in indigenous languages are reprobated as being ethnic or tribal, except in cultural celebrations or entertainment displays. This explains why even during the first republic and even the colonial era, when English had not attained its present level of ascendancy in national and international affairs, political parties were formed in English.
However, the parties might have regional bases; the fact that they were named in English entailed their collective import.
This integration role is not limited to politics or political parties alone but virtually all the strata of Nigerian life. Most Nigerians care whether the national team is made up of the members of the same family, not to talk of an ethnic group, even if they can deliver the goods or goals. The use of English facilitates the absence of such ethnic sentiments. English is also acceptable to all — perhaps even to those who clamour against its irresistible dominance.
The language is fraught with suspicions in formal or literate contexts. Yet English serves as the language of nationism, concerned with political integration and efficiency.
The constitution of Nigeria is written in English to create a level ground for all Nigerians to play, though the meta-language for the teaching of the three language and their legislative terms was being developed at a time in the past in the three major languages. Writing in English by Nigerian literary artists has also created a distinctive Nigerian literature marked by its own characteristics imbued with the features of inter-cultural communication and cooperation.
English is also the language of international relations and diplomacy — the language that mirrors Nigeria to the world. If English is removed, it is feared that the whole nation may automatically crumbles. In the face of the multilinguistic crisis in Nigeria, English should play the role of mediation. According to Obausia common language is a mark of identification and a necessary powerful tool for unity, for national consciousness — nationalism.
We need a common language. A knowledge of English is thus an indispensable requirement for anyone to rise or live in any place under the context of the community no matter the variety. By this we mean varieties which have been influenced according to goal, geographical dispensation and mother tongue.Role of the Social Sector & National Development