The following resources were included in GSDRC's Gateway Guide on Decentralisation and Local Governance, and complement the materials and links . Decentralization and Local Governance: Local Government Discretion and. Accountability . understand the disjoint between theory and practice of. 5. What is the link between decentralisation and state reform? Decentralisation, local governance and capacity development.
While non-governmental organisations might be the most traditional counterpart of governments in international aid and development cooperation in many countries, they are experiencing the rise of other players. How to put all these stakeholders together in order to create more efficient, coherent and complementary multistakeholder partnerships for decentralised cooperation? The authors explain with concrete examples and case studies how local and regional governments strive towards leading this new era of development cooperation.
Analyzing Good Governance and Decentralization in Developing Countries | OMICS International
The objectives of this study are to reinforce the new and innovative landscape and alliances for decentralised cooperation, in the context of the Agenda and the EU answer to the territorial dimension. It wants to contribute to the ongoing debate on the question of what role decentralisation can play in building sustainable peace, and under which conditions support to such reform efforts can be successful. Assessing the impact of governance programmes: GIZ support to citizen participation in local governance in Benin DIE, This publication provides an exemplary impact assessment of a decentralisation programme in Benin.
It analyses whether and how external support to citizen participation contributes to the quality of public services and local governance in the context of Benins decentralisation process. The study measures the effect of GIZ activities on the quality of selected citizen participation formats and evaluates the impact of these citizen participation formats on the quality of public service provision and local governance. The Government launched a reform to merge local governments and strengthen the decentralisation process, giving additional power and resources to sub-national authorities.
In a short period, successful steps have been taken toward achieving municipal mergers and greater fiscal, administrative and political decentralisation, complemented by the State Strategy for Regional Development The future is decentralised: This white paper explains how this unconventional technology works and how it is already being used to pursue conventional ends.
It illustrates how block chains have brought new levels of efficiency and effectiveness to the fields of development aid, supply chain management, renewable energy, economic growth, and several others.
On that account, the report makes recommendations for how the four governments can work together now and after Brexit. Does it build social cohesion or infrastructure? International Initiative for Impact Evaluation 3ieThis paper synthesises evidence on 23 community-driven development programmes. On the economic front, the success of centralized governments in the West in overcoming the great economic depression of enhanced their confidence in centralized governance.
The economic boom after the Second World War and successful creation of widely popular new social welfare systems; the incredible economic growth of the USSR between the s and the s; the experience of economic war planning in Nazi Germany and the United States; Keynesian demand management guarantees in Europe after the war: Such an outlook was quite obviously adopted by many countries in Asia and Africa, especially in colonized countries gaining independence after For example, in the case of the Indian subcontinentthe leadership of both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League essentially believed in centralized governance.
The case of Pakistan seems to be even extreme. The Pakistani state, unlike European nationstates, became an overdeveloped authoritarian state [ 15 ]. In the period afterthe state was still powerful enough in the First World to regulate capital, as capital had not yet transcended the state. The Keynesian economic paradigm was still prevalent [ 11 ]. In a new world situation much more complex in nature than what prevailed during the Cold War, it became difficult for old centralized governance approaches to deal with the challenges of managing and governing new trends of economic development.
This was a time when governments in the developed world came up with decentralized patterns of governance, endorsed by the neo-liberal economic paradigm that was already opposed to the Keynesian concept of state intervention adopted by centralized governments. It was claimed that the economic crises of most Third-World countries in Asia and Africa lay in their practices of bad governance.
It was therefore considered important to link decentralization as an important condition of future aid [ 16 ]. Aid, Political Conditionality and the Assumptions behind Good governance, decentralization and development Doornbos [ 9 ] argues that although state formation per se is not a new concept, state formation under external supervision surely is.
State formation, the posing of demands on theoretically sovereign states regarding the manner in which they should organize their administrative structures, policy-implementation procedures, and indeed their political systems, is new in recent history. These externally oriented conditions did not specify how the government concerned should structure their administration and policy-making processes, what priority they should assign to certain policy initiatives, or how they should handle a range of matters that might now typically come up in policy dialogue.
Authoritarianism and dictatorship thrived in those years in Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, after the Cold War, in the late s, it seemed justified to set conditions on the manner in which client states managed their governmental affairs. Rolling back state systems and reducing political weight within the very same countries became a key element in the thinking of global institutions. As mentioned earlier, Doornbos [ 9 ] has pointed out that emergence and evolution, as well as the possible eclipse of, notions of good governance might be considered in the light of a question of how universal the standards designed by the Western donor community of good governance are.
In this regard he argues: The standards do not seem to go very deep; thus, it could be argued, their universality may not reach very far either. More important, standards of good governance in principle are conceivable within quite different social-cultural and political contexts, and would constitute a rich field for comparative political anthropology or political science.
Rather, donor standards are likely to be derived from the way donors perceive and handle the world around them: The policy of aid provision for good governance according to Doornbos reflects a contemporary discourse of hegemonic essentialization of Western models of development as universal.
Decentralization and local government performance
The underlying philosophy is to modernize developing countries. Some of the architects of the modernization project [ 1718 ], representing the circumstances of the Cold War, advocated the central role of the state; the neo-liberals today advocate exactly the opposite.
The modernization project, having its roots in a Weberian-informed model of the western state, has always been intent upon implementing the same in the entire less-developed world.
Apart from this general assumption, it can be argued, however, that such supervision becomes problematic because of some specific assumptions made by the donor countries and the international financial institutions who are supposed to monitor and supervise development about the development of the lessdeveloped societies.
These specific assumptions are: Development is a process of modernization of less-developed societies on the pattern of development historically experienced by the developed world. This entails industrialization, technical advancement, rapid growth of material production and rising living standards.
Conversely, underdevelopment is both an income deprivation as well as a social reality connected to ancient philosophies and old social institutions. To improve economic and social conditions in the lessdeveloped world, the state structures of these countries need to be transformed according to the principles of governance evolved in the developed world 1 The above assumptions require critical analysis.
Samudavanija [ 20 ] suggests that Western political thought is essentially based on an Aristotelian concept of politics, which was rendered permanent by the influence of the positivist behavioral scientists of the s, and which incorporated structural-functionalism 2 into the study of comparative politics. Such classification, according to Samudavanija [ 20 ], has some major consequences when comparing the political systems of different societies. It is also a-historical.
Second, in terms of political change, it is based assumption of the possibility of completely replacing the existing political values, structures and functions by the new ones. The above tendencies have been further strengthened by the project of globalization, characterized by internationalization of production via flexible accumulation, the ascendance of neo-liberal social engineering, the telecommunications revolution, the hegemony of global finance and the overall compression of time and space, since [ 21 ].
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It is believed that in the era of globalization traditional value systems and institutions will disappear and institutions around the world will become alike within the developed world [ 22 ]. This is because the industrial organization and market practices of a country becoming globally competitive are learnt and adopted by other countries [ 22 ]. Institutions in the Third World are not unaffected by these phenomena.
The encounters of traditional societies with modern goods and services have significantly expanded in the era of globalization and this will weaken and diminish traditional forms of social organization [ 23 ]. In his article Griffin asserts that: Decisions are owned by the real stakeholders and this encourages effectiveness and efficiency in service delivery.
Concerns of the local people are an underlying cause and effect of local governance. This calls for the people to be involved in planning at various levels from the village level and all local government units. High participatory levels encourage innovation to source for the appropriate solutions to the common problems that face society. According to Gordon Crawford This is meant to have the real beneficiaries have power and authority to participate in decision making and implementation of what affects them.
Characteristics of good governance.
Good governance ensures adherence of human rights, a fair and impartial legal framework, freedom of association and fair social justice. An all embracing system where every development partner is involved in the making of decisions. For example a situation where all men and women participate either directly or indirectly in the work plans of both the local councils and at the national and international level.
All citizens are given an opportunity of expressing their opinions for proper resource allocation and service delivery. All people regardless of color, sex, age, or tribe should be treated equally for the sake of ensuring the welfare to the population. All members of the society are given equal opportunities and this ensures their good welfare. This is very important to ensure fairness within the systems.
Civil servants, civil society organizations, the politicians and the private sector are accountable to the public. Accountability is in form of resources and the quality and quantity output of the work done.
Good communication and free flow of information is the mainstream of transparency. All the information is for all the development partners for proper planning, evaluation and monitoring.
This helps to build mutual trust between government institutions, the private sector, civil society and the public.
Analyzing Good Governance and Decentralization in Developing Countries
The public policy takes into the account the interests of the population. All the planning is geared towards the needs of all stakeholders. This helps to improve the aspirations of the public and aid government proper planning. For development to take place, there is always a long term goal for leaders and the public to focus on.
This is within the historical, cultural and social complexities of a respective community.NRM decentralization:the relationship between the central and local governments
Once the vision is taken up by the public, they develop a sense of responsibility and ownership. The development partners and all stakeholders make sure that processes and institutions make use of the available resources to produce the best output for the entire population. There is maximum service delivery and optimal utilization of the local resources.