control in relation to disclosure is applicable to adolescents with disciplinary problems. Keywords: paternal control, maternal control. High levels of perceived maternal support and low levels of maternal rigid control were related to adolescents'reports of sympathy, social competence, and. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of perceived maternal rejection, perceived paternal rejection and father involvement with.
In the analysis, it was found that the suggested hypothetical model is valid. The results of the study have been discussed within the context of PARTheory and the studies in the literature. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences: Children, especially around the first years of their life are affected by the mother and father as being nearest person. Since the psychology is an independent branch of science, over a hundred years, one of the main issues examined were the effects of parents on their children.
Freud, emphasizing the importance of mother-child relationship in childhood years, argued that the foundation of personality established as a result of the relationships with parents in childhood.
In subsequent years, many theorists such as Bowlby, Sullivan, Baumrind and Rogers, emphasized the importance of the mother-father-child relationship in childhood years in their theories. Bowlby 1 states that the attachment styles which occur in childhood have an effect on the mental health of individuals in adulthood.
According to the interpersonal theory proposed by Sullivan 2personality occurs as a result human relations, especially as the product of interactions with important figures in the environment. Baumrind 3 have suggested that the three parenting style democratic, authoritarian and permissive are associated with different developmental outcomes.
Children, who have grown in families which have democratic attitude, have internalized the values of their parents and psychological development and adjustments in those children have found positive. All of the theorists mentioned above indicated that the quality of parent-child relationship, in the first years of life, will be a significant impact on individuals in the following years.
Rohner 4,5 asserts that the childhood of human is essential in terms of the social, personality development and psychology of human. According to this theory, the emotional, behavioral and social-cognitive development is affected by the acceptance or rejection by parents in childhood 5. PARTheory is based on the assumption that all the people around the world need to get a positive response, in other words, feel the temperature by people who are important to them 6.
It has been reported that this need can be found in the internal needs of all humanity regardless of culture, race, physical property, social status, language, geography and many other restrictive condition 5,7,8. According to Rohner acceptance is the feeling of parents against their children such as their love, warmth, care and support. An accepting attitude can include physical behaviors which show that the parents accepted their children, such as kissing, hugging, embracing, smile or verbal show of affection such as praise, saying beautiful words.
Rejection attitude, however, occurs in the situations where absence of verbal and physical demonstrations of affection, ignored individuals, physical or psychological traumatic experiences and the situations where the child is unwanted by the parents 6. The dimensions are defined as warmth, hostility, indifference and indifferentiated rejection.
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According to PARTheory, impact of childhood experiences are continuous lifelong 9. In the development of personality and behavior of the people, environmental factors and the first years of life is of great importance. Starting from the first years of the child, attitudes and behaviors of parents constitute the most important environmental factors that how he would interpret and perceive his personality development, self-perception, events, environment and himself It is not possible to think the development of personality independent from interaction with parents and the first years of life.
Concept of personality in the PARTheory is described as the behavior of people in various environments or life situations, for reacting relatively stable tendencies emotional, cognitive, perceptual and motivational and the resulting observable behavior PARTheory suggested that in cases of rejection, the people are located at the negative end of the, hostility, abuse, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional instability and negative worldview Related studies have shown that the rejection has negative detrimental effect on psychological adjustment For this purpose, the following questions have been sought primarily: Is there a significant difference in terms of gender for the perceived level of parental acceptance or rejection?
Is there a significant difference in terms of gender for the psychological adjustment? Hypotheses related to the model in the research are as follows: Perception of maternal acceptance or rejection significantly predicts general psychological adjustment of people. Perception of paternal acceptance or rejection significantly predicts general psychological adjustment of people.
All participants in the study have joined voluntarily to study group. Participants regarding the educational level of their parents as follows; When looking at the income level of the respondents, PARQ was developed in by Rohner et al.
PARQ, which has sixty items, consists of four subscales. All items in warmth subscale are scored as reverse.
Total scores can be obtained from PARQ are changes in the range from 60 to Sixty show the highest perceived acceptance level score, show the highest perceived rejection level score. It is found that the internal consistency coefficients of the original form of the questionnaire range from 0. PAQ can also be used as independent scale. Each of the seven personality traits mentioned in adult PAQ are measured with 9 items, hence there are totally 63 items in the Adult PAQ.
The total PAQ score thought to reflect general psychological adjustment is determined by summing the seven subscale scores and the adults PAQ score range from 63 minimum to maximum.
It has been found that the internal reliability coefficient of original form of PAQ ranges from 0. It has been found that internal consistency coefficient related to subscales of adult PAQ ranges from 0.
Statistical Analysis In this study, the differences between groups were analyzed by independent samples Student t test. In testing of the relationship between variables discussed in this study, it has been investigated that whether hypothetical model, which is established by utilizing theoretical ground, representing the relationship pattern has been verified by data. After testing the validity of the hypothetical model with structural equation analysis, significant relationships between latent variables have been evaluated.
In undifferentiated rejection subscale, there is no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of male participants and female participants.
Considering these findings, it has been observed that the female participants perceive their mother as warmer, less hostile and less indifferent than male participants, in general perceived maternal acceptance of female participants is more than that of male participants. Considering these findings, it has been observed that the female participants perceive their father as warmer, less hostile and less indifferent than male participants, in general perceived paternal acceptance of female participants is more than that of male participants.
In accordance with the second research question of the study, t-test results for the psychological adjustment scores in terms of gender are given in Table 3. In terms of psychological adjustment subscale; it has been observed that the subscales hostility, dependence, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy and emotional unresponsiveness differs in terms of gender Table 3. In another words, males are more hostile, felt more negative self-esteem and negative self-adequacy, emotionally more unresponsive than females; it has been observed that females are more dependent than males.
The mean scores of male and female participants have not shown statistically significant difference in subscale of emotional instability, negative worldview and total scores on psychological adjustment.
The hostility, dependency, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional instability and negative worldview scales constitute latent variable of psychological adjustment. In the literature, two-stage process for testing the structural model is proposed.
Accordingly, in the first stage, all the variables involved in the structural model, are subjected to a measurement model test. Thus, it is analyzed by the data whether the measurement model is verified. After obtaining desired fit indexes at this stage, second stage of the data analysis is performed.
In the second stage, structural model is tested Therefore, in this study, first the measurement model was tested, in order to observe the relationship between study variables. Then, hypothetical structural model was tested.
After testing the measurement model, analysis results proposed eight parameters to be added to model. Afterwards measurement model is tested again.When the Narcissist's Parents Die
Reviewing the fit indexes of the model, values of GFI 0. In the next step, hypothetical model represents relationship between the latent variables was tested. The structural model was tested using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method. Fit indexes obtained after testing structural model are given in Table 4.
All of the fit indexes are above 0. RMSEA value also appears to be within acceptable limits. Standardized coefficients related to the test of structural model are presented in Figure 1.
When fit indexes of the model are evaluated, it can generally be stated that the model has good values. It has been observed that since s and s, the Turkish culture and Turkish families passing through a rapid change, accordingly; the traditional, rural and patriarchal Turkish culture becomes modern and egalitarian society in an increased way In Turkish culture, according to Fisek 29as the distance based on power reduced, the distance created by respect and caring is preserved and the high proximity family model have increasingly became evident.
It has also been observed that the females perceived their mother as warmer, less hostile, and less indifferent and generally perceived their mother as more accepting than males.
Females perceive their father as warmer, less hostile, less undifferentiated and less undifferentiated rejected than males and generally females perceive their father as more accepting. Consistent with this study, it is observed that generally perceived rejection of father by males is higher than perceived rejection of females in the results of the studies of Orun 30Unubol 18 and Kabaoglu In terms of psychological adjustment subscales, difference between females and males observed in hostility, dependency, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy and emotional unresponsiveness.
A leading factor in the development of childhood obesity is parental obesity.
Targeting overweight and obesity in the child should occur simultaneously with tackling overweight and obesity in the parents; in this study, the fathers. Introduction Worldwide, 43 million children are overweight or obese1. Recent projections from American data suggest that the obesity epidemic may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation2.
Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in men in the EU5. A leading factor in the development of childhood obesity is parental obesity7,8. Children are at increased risk of obesity if both parents are obese9. Parental body mass index BMI is one risk factor. Although BMI has clinical limitations10,11, it has a role in tracking weight status in populations and as a screening tool.
Three critical time-periods have been observed for the onset of obesity in childhood: The impact of parental BMI on the severity of obesity in children increases at transition into adolescence The relationship between maternal and child BMI has been well documented8,16,17,18,19, whereas the effect of paternal BMI is less well-described8, The aims of this study were to use data from the GUI database to: Methods The GUI study is a nationally representative cohort study of 8, nine-year-old school children and their caregivers living in the Republic of Ireland.
A two-stage sampling methodology within the primary school system was conducted. In stage one, 1, primary schools were selected from the national total of 3, using a probability proportionate to size PPS sampling method. Nine hundred and nine These children represent approximately 1 in 7 of all children aged 9 years resident in the Republic of Ireland at the time of sample selection in The sample was weighted by adjusting the distribution of the sample to known population characteristics of children and their families from the Census of Population in Ireland.
Characteristics accounted for in the weights included family structure, social class, economic and disadvantaged status. Parents nominated a primary caregiver the parent who spent most time with the study child and a secondary caregiver. A self-report of weight kgheight cm and self-perceived weight status categorised as very underweight, moderately underweight, slightly underweight, about the right weight, slightly overweight, moderately overweight and very overweight was recorded for all fathers.
Measures of height and weight were obtained by trained interviewers using validated methods during the household interview visit Height was measured using a Leicester portable height stick to the nearest 0. Both the father and study child wore light clothing when weighed.