Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach - Munich Personal RePEc Archive
Mumbai, home to the metre-tall towers of the World Trade Centre, is the financial centre of India. It is also a city of immense poverty. There. Towards a clearer understanding of `vulnerability' in relation to chronic poverty . clear differentiation between poverty and vulnerability and this is obvious. understanding the linkages between economic and social risks for poverty reduction‟. ODI .. relationships where men and women work together, as well as.
To address the potential endogeneity of pension payment, a fuzzy regression discontinuity RD regression is employed to investigate the effects of pension income on food poverty and vulnerability for different population groups.
We found that pension income decreases the probability of being food poor and the vulnerability to food poverty among the elderly with chronic diseases by New Rural Pension Scheme, food poverty, vulnerability, chronic diseases, elderly 1. Introduction With the largest elderly population in the world, China is now experiencing an unprecedented aging process. Unlike the elderly in developed countries, whose consumption expenditures are largely financed by a pension system, most of the people at an old age in China, especially in rural China, are financed by savings and by transfers from children.
However, the implementation of the one-child policy in the last three decades has dramatically increased the dependency ratio at a relatively low income level [ 1 ], making the old population face significant uncertainty in their future consumption.
As China ages, the elderly experience high incidence of poverty and the deprivation of basic services. To provide income security for old people, social pension programs have been widely regarded and implemented as an important policy tool [ 2 ]. With the majority of the elderly living in rural areas, in latethe Chinese government launched the New Rural Pension Scheme NRPS —a departure from the traditional family support—to ensure the well-being of the aging older population in rural China.
The implementation of the NRPS brought rural China into a new period of social pension systems, which have far-reaching well-being implication for rural residents.
Aging has been an issue for both developed and developing countries, but this phenomenon is more recent in developing countries, and programs to provide support for old people in less developed countries are limited [ 3 ]. The NRPS is one of the social pension programs that has been introduced by the Chinese government, targeting the elderly population residing in rural areas. In light of the importance of social pension programs on dealing with aging issues, whether these programs reach their expected goals has triggered the interests of many researchers.
A large body of literature has examined the impact of social pension programs on the elderly population. However, considerable attention has been paid to the effects of a social pension program on labor supply [ 345 ], intergenerational economic transfer from adult children to their parents [ 67 ], and living arrangements [ 8910 ].
The channels through which pension income contributes to food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly, especially the elderly with chronic diseases, it is not well understood. Food poverty can generally be defined as a situation where a household or an individual lacks the resources to acquire a nutritionally adequate diet [ 11 ]. People of an old age often face particular challenges in terms of the financial resources that are required to access foods, as aging imposes a decrement in productivity [ 12 ].
To maintain caloric intake, the elderly who worry that they will not have adequate money for food reduce the variety in their diet and concentrate their intake on a few low-cost, energy-dense, and nutritionally-poor foods [ 13 ].
Major risk factors for the onset of some of the most prevalent chronic diseases are the consumption of diets rich in empty calories and poor in nutrients e. Therefore, the elderly that are food poor are more likely to experience chronic diseases.
The link between poverty, powerlessness and disasters | ActionAid UK
Since income is a significant factor in determining whether elders get nutritionally adequate food, old adults with chronic diseases are supposed to be at a higher risk of vulnerability to food poverty, leading to unequal distribution of food poverty incidence and vulnerability between the elderly with chronic diseases and those in good health. Given the challenges of ensuring food security and prevent age-associated chronic diseases so as to promote healthy aging, the Chinese government launched the NRPS targeting rural residents in This paper has two objectives, it 1 investigates the magnitude and causes of ex-post food poverty and ex-ante vulnerability of the rural elderly with and without chronic diseases, and 2 estimates how this pension reform affects food poverty and vulnerability of the rural elderly with chronic diseases, and tests whether the effects are different for different population groups.
Analyzing these questions is challenging for at least two reasons. Firstly, the consumption decision is largely affected by life-cycle patterns and cohort heterogeneity, resulting in difficulties in separating the effect of pension income from age or cohort heterogeneity [ 5 ]. Taking advantage of the policy design that rural residents are eligible for pension income beginning at age 60, we apply a fuzzy regression discontinuity RD design to overcome this issue.
The fuzzy RD approach is often used when the take-up of the pension is incomplete or does not coincide exactly with age eligibility, which is the case in our study, where pension cannot be paid to the elderly immediately after their 60th birthday.
The second challenge is the determination of the food poverty line. In the absence of data on the calorie consumption of individuals, the direct calorie intake method and food energy intake approach could not be applied. To solve this problem, a least-cost approach, based on a linear programming technique, is applied. One infamous storm in July dumped more than 90 centimetres of rain on Mumbai in a single day, shutting down train lines and killing over people in the city alone.
Romero Lankao has gotten a taste of monsoon season, too. During a visit to Mumbai inshe remembers returning to her hotel soaking wet after spending days out in the city: Many neighborhoods in Mumbai have poorly-constructed sewers, or no sewers at all, she explains.
Disaster Risk and Vulnerability: The Role and Impact of Population and Society
Trash pickup is also spotty at best, situations that can turn streets into a soupy mess of waste when it rains. According to a report from UN-Habitat10 days after the flooding ofparts of the metropolitan area along the Mithi River, which is dominated by slums, still had little access to food or clean drinking water — even as the rest of Mumbai had recovered. Patricia Romero Lankao and her colleagues tour Dharavi, an informal settlement that is home to as many as one million people.
The students walked across Mumbai, talking to residents from Dharavi to the gated communities where the wealthy live.
The students asked residents about their capacity for responding to disaster, too. That included whether residents knew about or had access to government programmes around responding to hazards and whether they belonged to tightly-knit social networks.
In all, the students surveyed around 1, people. The result was a complex mosaic of what makes people in Mumbai vulnerable to natural disasters.
Consequently, policies aimed at addressing risk and vulnerability must also take into account these differential impacts and outcomes of disasters. Population Growth and Distribution Population growth and distribution, especially increased population density and urbanization, increases vulnerability to disasters.
What is vulnerability? - IFRC
Congestion, limited escape routes, dense infrastructure, and poverty add to the vulnerability. Cities and countries in other regions of the world face similar problems. For example, researchers argue that in countries such as China, urban earthquakes are more dangerous because of the density of the infrastructure. Commonly issued in English, disaster warnings may be misunderstood or not understood at all by Spanish-speaking individuals. During the Indian Ocean tsunami, women and children were more likely to suffer injuries and fatalities than men and boys were.