The relationship between smoking and reduced body weight is widely recognised by smokers, and generally overestimated. Age- and baseline body weight–adjusted estimates were reported; both factors were major confounders of the relation between smoking and. This study examined the relationship between dietary intake, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in adult Thais as a function of smoking status.
This suggests that a pattern of sedentary behavior may become established while people are current smokers. This pattern may continue after cessation for many former smokers.
This has several important implications for both current and former smokers. First, it is possible that the physiological effects of nicotine mask the negative effects of sedentary behavior on weight status.
However, when nicotine is removed during cessation, the impact of sedentary behavior on weight emerges in former smokers. Sedentary behavior may thus function as a potential mechanism of postcessation weight gain which could be directly targeted within an intervention. Former smokers were also more likely to be obese and had a larger WC compared to never smokers in the bivariate analyses.
When examining these weight differences in the context of sedentary behavior, never and former smokers had a similar BMI at varying levels of sedentary behavior. Conversely, never and former smokers had significantly different WC at all levels of sedentary behavior. These differences in body shape suggest that while former smokers may not be at risk for greater adiposity, they appear to be at risk for increased central adiposity compared to never smokers.
Both smoking cessation and sedentary behavior are associated with weight gain and metabolic syndrome [ 105152 ]. Epidemiologic research has shown an association between sedentary behavior and chronic disease risk factors including central adiposity and elevated blood glucose and insulin [ 3253 — 56 ].
The results of the current study may help to explain recent findings that smokers who recently quit smoking were at increased risk of type 2 diabetes [ 52 ]. While we saw no difference between never and former smokers in terms of BMI in the model with the interaction term, we did see significant differences at varying levels of sedentary behavior between these two groups with regards to WC. This research has important implications for smoking cessation interventions.
- Relationship Between Smoking and Weight Control Efforts Among Adults in the United States
- Journal of Obesity
The Clinical Practice Guideline for smoking cessation includes potential ways of addressing weight gain concerns when smokers make a quit attempt [ 57 ].
These include 1 explaining that the health risks of weight gain are small when compared to the risks of continued smoking, 2 recommending physical activities and healthy diet to control weight, and 3 suggesting that patients concentrate primarily on smoking cessation, not weight control, until ex-smokers are confident that they will not start smoking again [ 57 ].
The findings from the current study suggest that reducing time spent in sedentary behavior may be a potential intervention strategy and warrants further research. This may be a valuable and important public health message for the population as a whole, but in particular for smokers who are attempting to quit smoking.
Unraveling the Relationship between Smoking and Weight: The Role of Sedentary Behavior
The importance of these findings must be recognized in light of several limitations. The measurements of smoking status and sedentary behavior were self-reported.
A study comparing self-reported smoking data to measurements of serum cotinine a metabolite of nicotine suggested that self-reported smoking was generally quite consistent with measured nicotine exposures [ 58 ]. It is likely that sedentary behavior was underreported and with a more refined self-report measure or objective sedentary behavior assessment, we may show stronger associations with smoking and weight-related outcomes.
We attempted to include a measure of work-related sedentary behavior in follow-up analyses. Importantly, we were able to see associations of this self-reported sedentary behavior with smoking and weight-related outcomes.
Furthermore, leisure time sedentary behavior rather than work place sedentary behavior may be a more probable intervention point for public health practitioners.
While we have proposed pathways for how these relationships may unfold, this data is cross-sectional in nature, and directionality must be tested in longitudinal studies. Future studies should also look specifically at how these risk factors and behaviors predict disease outcomes. This study is the first nationally representative study to examine the relationships between sedentary behavior, smoking status, and weight-related outcomes.
Furthermore, the current study specifically examined the role of sedentary behavior, going beyond previous research that has focused on the links between smoking and physical activity [ 4445 ].
Future studies should examine more refined measures of smoking status, as prior studies suggest that there may be variation in weight outcomes depending on number of years smoking and amount smoked [ 5960 ]. According to the Framingham study, the life expectancy of obese smokers was at least 13 years less than non-smokers of normal weight.
Most studies have observed that there is indeed an increase in weight after stopping smoking, although the weight gain varied between them. In Spain, long-term monitoring assessments of the correlation between these 2 major cardiovascular risk factors are scarce.
Effect of Smoking on Body Weight: Longitudinal Analysis of the SUN Cohort
METHODS Studied Population The SUN study is a dynamic prospective cohort study designed to assess the role of diet, smoking and other factors in various chronic diseases, with special emphasis on cardiovascular health. This study is within the framework of this objective.
The objectives and methods of the SUN study have been the object of specific publications. The inclusion of participants, all university graduates, started in and is permanently open continuous recruitmentas it was designed as a dynamic cohort study.
We used The retention rate for analysis in this study, with a follow-up of only 4 years Participants followed in the cohort study were increasingly less frequent smokers, more often married, had a lower body mass index BMI and were older. Another 62 participants were excluded because they had extreme values for baseline BMI or BMI change during follow-up. In total, data from participants were included in the analysis.
The study was approved by the Ethicas Committee of the University of Navarra. The baseline questionnaire also asked if the participant smoked a pipe or cigars. Assessment of Other Variables Eating habits in the baseline questionnaire were evaluated by food intake frequency of itemswhich had been previously validated in Spain.
This was adjusted for total energy residual method. Baseline physical activity during leisure time was assessed through questions on participation in 17 different activities.What Happens When You Stop Smoking?
The median follow-up was 50 months mean [SD], Weight was previously validated in a subsample of the cohort study. A small mean relative error 1. Statistical Analysis Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between the different smoking categories and weight gain during follow-up, with the category of people who had never smoked as the reference. Therefore, their results show the average difference in weight gain for each smoker category compared to those who had never smoked.
For both linear and logistic models, a crude model was first calculated followed by a multivariate one adjusted for age continuousbaseline BMI continuousphysical inactivity tertilesphysical exercise during follow-up increasing, unchanged or decreasingtotal energy intake continuoushabit of eating between meals "snacking"sugary drink consumption tertiles ,21 total dietary fibre intake continuousconsumption of fast food tertiles ,21 and alcohol consumption tertiles.
All models were prepared separately for men and women. The mean baseline BMI was After the follow-up median of 50 monthsthe mean weight gain was 1. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of participants by smoking category.
Table 2 shows the baseline BMI and age of smokers according to the number of cigarettes smoked at the start of the study. Participants who smoked more cigarettes at baseline had a significantly higher BMI at the start of the study.
Smoking and body weight - Tobacco In Australia
The weight gain in participants who had never smoked was on average: Using participants who had never smoked as a reference, and adjusting for potential confusors, participants who stopped smoking during follow-up had a greater weight gain: This equates to an increase in baseline weight of 2.
Active smokers also had a higher weight gain during follow up when compared to people who had never smoked: Men who were ex-smokers at baseline did not have a significant increase in weight at follow-up: Participants who had started smoking were not significantly different from non-smokers, although in women the point estimate of the difference was negative.
In assessing the weight gain of participants who continued smoking at follow-up, according to baseline smoking categories, there was no difference between the different categories after adjusting for potential confusion variables.