The relationship between depression anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes

Anxiety and Psycho-Physiological Stress Response to Competitive Sport Exercise

the relationship between depression anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes

adolescent athletes do not assess baseline testing as stressful, thereby .. Various studies have identified that the distribution of mental resources as the link disorder (depression and anxiety), English as a second language, incomplete data on .. slower reaction times compared to the low state anxiety group (Figure 2). Aim: To compare sports-related visual abilities such as hand-eye reaction There was a negative correlation between the number of years of doing sports and eye-hand visual .. Salmon P. Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression. Prof. of Sports Medicine, Near East University. Adresă de The relationship between depression, anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes. HU Yavuz, F.

The reasoning for this, suggested in current research is explained. Finally, some practical skills to minimise athlete vulnerability to depression are suggested. An interactive quiz, other chapters to explore, external sources, and a multimedia explanation are given to help supplement learning. This illustrates how depression and motivation are closely linked.

Motivation and emotion/Book/2014/Depression in athletes

Major depressive disorder MDD is the most common and severe expression of a depressive disorder and is diagnosed with the presence of a major depressive episode which is established when the individual exhibits five or more of the required symptoms. These include, but are not limited to, a pervasive sense of hopelessness, worthlessness, decreased motivation, energy, and pleasure, as well as impaired sleep, concentration and appetite changes APA, Data positively suggests that individuals who are physically active are three times less likely to suffer from depression than inactive individuals.

This underlines why theory and research surrounding MDD in athletes is important for understanding why athletes are vulnerable to depression and what can be done about it. Pressure to perform can undermine the beneficial effects of participation in sport Theory[ edit ] Participation in athletic activity is an integral component of society. It is generally understood that participation in recreational sports has a range of physical and mental health benefits as cited in Storch et al.

However, literature suggests that when athletes enter elite levels of sporting commitment that the stressors due to these commitment levels can outweigh the associated mental and physical health benefits Storch et al. Positive psychology[ edit ] There are many known benefits of physical activity. A generally optimistic theorisation of the effects of physical activity on mental health is derived from the perspective of positive psychology. Positive psychologists theorise that athletes who participate in regular physical activity should be generally happy.

Motivation and emotion/Book//Depression in athletes - Wikiversity

This is because physical activity incorporates all five components that are found to make individuals the happiest. These five components proposed by Seligman as cited in Mostafai, include pleasure, flow described as the absorption of an enjoyed activitysocial ties, meaning, and accomplishment.

Furthermore, the concept of happiness is suggested to include positive excitement, life satisfaction and lower expressions of negative emotionality such as depression and stress Mostafai, The criticisms of this perspective is that it is one-sided does not account for times in which the athlete does experience cognitive distress. Alternatively, CBT suggests that if an athlete has a positive and more realistic view which incorporates their successes, failures, and abilities, they would not experience the same distress Storch et al.

From the perspective of CBT, it is theorised that these beliefs about the self, experience and future develop through internalisation of others' feedback Storch et al. This is particularly relevant for athletes, as performance in a social setting enables constant scrutiny about their performance by others. So, according to the concept of self-efficacy, if an athlete places negative attributions on their sport, believing that they cannot effectively compete or improve their performance they will experience distress Storch et al.

Findings from the perspective of positive psychology understand that physical activity has positive effects on both body and mind, increases self-confidence, and provides a feeling of accomplishment and mastery Salehian et al. This view can be theorised as self-efficacy, which is the belief that a person has [ missing something?

So, a focus on generating and maintaining realistic self-efficacy beliefs in athletes is necessary to minimise negative emotional outcomes such as depression. From the perspective of social cognitive theory this could have been due to the high amount of pressure that her coaches placed on her to take her sporting commitments seriously.

Michelle stated in an interview that "you would be training for some intricate little skill you want to improve or perfect…[with] constant goals and reassurances that you were doing the right thing" Barker-Ruchti et al. Following the theoretical underpinnings explained above, See TheoryMichelle no longer could define herself through her sport after retirement.

This had a negative effect on her self-efficacious beliefs.

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Furthermore, she no longer had the strong and constant social support around her, and she was no longer receiving the benefits of psychical activity.

All of these factors increased her vulnerability and contributed to her depression. If you would like to learn about some other athletes who have suffered from depression, go to External links for some great resources.

Research[ edit ] Moderate to vigorous aerobic activity is important in the prevention of mental and physical health problems. These factors are suggested to leave the athlete in a highly vulnerable state for a major depressive disorder. When it is well-regulated eustressthe stress expresses a physiological mechanism managing acute and chronic biological costs. There is a strong inter-individual variability in the psychobiological reaction to a stressor, and it is identical within the same individual for the physical or psychic stressors McEwen, The stress response, whatever the stressor, forms part of an earthly body whose limits are influenced by the genome and the history of the subject.

These factors inherent to each subject constitute an endogenous limitation, which expresses the more or less big efficiency of the biological systems to cope with the demands imposed by the stressors.

the relationship between depression anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes

This biological efficiency is modulated by the psyche that is going to deal with an event as a stressor as soon as it is perceived as new, unpredictable, or else uncontrollable. The psychological factors participating in this inter-individual variability belong to two main categories: Among these psychological factors, anxiety plays a major part.

As for any psychic dimension, the trait personality, moderator factor must be distinguished from the state and the mood mediator factor; Bolmont and Abraini, The anxiety trait is considered as a relatively stable emotional disorder that characterizes a personality manifesting through a sense of insecurity Spielberger and Smith, The anxiety-state is a fear characterized by behavioral, physiological, and cognitive responses, which encompass those of stress but do not stop at them.

The individuals with an anxious personality are particularly sensitive to emotional stimuli with a negative valence, which contribute to the risk of developing anxious pathologies.

This sensitivity contributes to reducing the adaptation of anxious individuals to stressors. The anxiety trait is therefore considered as a moderator fostering the emergence of important and repeated stress reactions. The anxiety-state reflects a time period focused to anxious feeling relatively to a present or future meaningful context Hainaut and Bolmont, So, if the anxious trait empirically allows to prejudge an anxious state, the opposite is less systematic as a result of the anxious state depending on its context.

The anxiety context would express a dynamic emotional process that could include an anxious emotion or an anxious mood depending on its intensity and duration. The anxious state is considered as a stress reaction mediator positioning the perception of context as a per se actor of the dynamic to stress response. Practicing a physical activity, aerobic or anaerobic, has been put forward for a long time as an ecological method to reduce the anxiety-state whatever the level of anxiety-trait Petruzzello et al.

Furthermore, the physical activity is of undeniable interest for the prevention and treatment of mental diseases in relation to anxiety Anderson and Shivakuvar, ; Kumar, Beyond this, somatic benefits do exist, especially cardiovascular effects are benefits Paffenbarger et al. It also plays a beneficial role on the stress-related diseases. These benefits are all the more important when the practice is regular Petruzzello et al. The WHO recommendations suggest to practice a moderate activity at least 3 h a week or an intense activity at least 20 min three times a week.

the relationship between depression anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes

However, some sport activities generate deleterious stress responses. In the context of a compulsory practice, the physical activity turns up to act as a stressor for the individual. Preclinical studies on rats undergoing rehabilitation show a stress response, which delays recovery when the rehabilitation exercises are compulsorily done Ke et al.

As far as humans are concerned, a compulsory sport practice also triggers a stress reaction Nicolas, ; Ke et al.

A need for performing a more-and-more frequent and more-and-more intense physical activity is observed, particularly among sportsmen characterized by a high anxiety-trait level Cook and Hausenblas, In the context of competition, an anxiety is often present following a sports contest Shabnam Hamidia, Finally, after a competitive effort, compared to a similar effort in a training context, a longer physiological recovery is observed, resulting in the persistence of a high sympathetic tone Foster, This response could have consequences in terms of recovery among these patients.

These data suggest that certain sport practices conditions might not be beneficial to the health, especially among anxious patients.

the relationship between depression anxiety and visual reaction times in athletes

The military environment provides a model to explore these issues. As part of the army forces retention, the military institution imposes a regular physical activity practice to its staff for a minimum of 8 h a week. In this sense, soldiers are professional sportsmen. The purpose of this training is twofold: It is legitimate under these elements to consider that the military sports selection is similar to competitions and that it constitutes a practice setting likely to generate a stress response, especially among anxious staff members.

We wish to study the psycho-physiological stress response in the military individual compelled to a selective commando march. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the anxious status on the dynamic of stress response following the commando march. Materials and Methods Participants Sixty-three voluntary French male soldiers age: All were in initial training for the fusilier commando specialty, a French navy special force unit.

The data collection was carried out on four commando training-courses that took place between May and January Three individuals were excluded from the analysis due to missing data; the individuals had not completed the submitted questionnaires. Chart 1 sums up the characteristics of these training-courses. This study was agreed by the Ouest six persons protection comity under the reference A All the prospective subjects were informed about the conduct of this study and gave their written consent prior to their participation.