Development Vision has identified that kind of enabling environment that is The implementation of the Vision will have to include developing Tanzania's . All social relations and processes which manifest and breed inequality, in all .. Nation-state economic behavior is being transformed by globalization and. effect of applying Kenya Vision on wealth inequality between and ; to establish the extent to which . Chapter 2- Literature Review and Theoretical Framework. a causal relationship between the independent variable- Kenya Vision 's strategies- and the Effects of Financial Globalization on. Journal: Globalisation, Societies and Education. Manuscript ID Neoliberal Link between Education, Economic Opportunities and Policy Borrowing. National education .. In , it created the Economic Vision . them on the theories of multiple intelligences, critical thinking, social constructivism, and based on this.
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Within this analytical framework, a stock of some elements varies due to inflows increasing the stock and outflows diminishing it. What does this mean exactly? Good Health and Well-being see Figure 1. In systems dynamics, stock variables represent variables that accumulate or that can be depleted. To better understand how it works, imagine a bathtub.
Arrows represent a primary or secondary causal direction moving from a cause to an effect. Moldova SDGs system map. The solid lines conventionally denote that the cause and effect move in the same direction holding all else constant; e. A dashed line denotes the cause and effect moving in the opposite directions, e. In the SDGs complexity mapping, the first major decision was where to begin. In our case, we started with the SDG1: No Poverty, for which we have conducted a prima facie analysis of the immediate causal links Figure 2.
We then add a new layer of analysis, by incorporating the SDG2: Therefore, the resilient agriculture looks like an important poverty reduction strategy and achieving SDG 2: Zero Hunger helps achieving SDG 1: No Poverty having SDG Reduced Inequalities as intermediary.
Layer after layer, we arrive at a densely packed map revealing the most essential mutual influences among the Moldovan SDGs targets and related policies. From this comprehensive exercise, we narrowed down the common vision for Moldova in to three main poles: People with a good quality of life, with decreased emigration and progressive values, have to be put at the centre of the development vision — i.
THE TANZANIA DEVELOPMENT VISION
Effective, accountable and inclusive institutions able to put an end to corruption are essential for unleashing the potential existing in the wider society. Sustainable production and sustainable industrialization is the most promising economic model enabling a decisive and lasting reduction in poverty and in providing equal opportunities for all to achieve high standards of living. We found some answers and have more questions Overall, systems analysis proved to be a great method for looking at the big picture.
It helped identify the most connected elements which served as a basis for defining the development vision for the National Development Strategy Moldova and for prioritizing key areas of intervention. As such, we made the first step towards understanding the causal links between SDG targets.
The next step in this analysis would be to check how these links change over time, allowing us to understand the dynamics of the system.Globalization in 3 minutes, theory in 3 minuttes
Similarly, we would want to see the strength of the links to understand the magnitude of influence. This would represent a highly ambitious exercise, requiring a different time-frame and more solid data.
The rule of law and the voices of the people in the development process have tended to be weak. The national institutional and organizational structures have not been reviewed to cope with the demands of the on-going reforms. As a result, these structures have not been supportive of evolving social relations which promote the participation of all partners in development and have equally failed to effectively mobilize domestic resources and capabilities to meet the emerging challenges of market-oriented and private sector-led development.
As a result, implementation has been weak. This situation has given rise to the erosion of trust and confidence among the people on their leaders. It is evident that the people are now less enthusiastic about participating in national endeavors. Apathy has set in. It is envisioned that the following specific achievements would be attainable by the year Food self-sufficiency and food security. Universal primary education, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training that is commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond and master the development challenges at all levels.
Gender equality and the empowerment of women in all socio-economic and political relations and cultures. Access to quality primary health care for all.
Access to quality reproductive health services for all individuals of appropriate ages. Reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates by three-quarters of current levels. Universal access to safe water.
Life expectancy comparable to the level attained by typical middle income countries. Absence of abject poverty 3. Desirable moral and cultural uprightness. Strong adherence to and respect for the rule of law Absence of corruption and other vices. A learning society which is confident, learns from its own development experience and that of others and owns and determines its own development agenda.
A diversified and semi-industrialized economy with a substantial industrial sector comparable to typical middle-income countries. Macroeconomic stability manifested by a low inflation economy and basic macroeconomic balances. An adequate level of physical infrastructure needed to cope with the requirements of the Vision in all sectors.
An active and competitive player in the regional and world markets, with the capacity to articulate and promote national interests and to adjust quickly to regional and global market shifts.
It is also envisaged that fast growth will be pursued while effectively reversing current adverse trends in the loss and degradation of environmental resources such as forests, fisheries, fresh water, climate, soils, biodiversity and in the accumulation of hazardous substances.
The major strengths which Tanzanians must capitalize on are national unity, social cohesion, peace and stability. However, these assets, born out of the Arusha Declaration, should not be taken for granted.
They have been cultivated over a long period of time and are the pillars upon which the hopes and expectations of the majority of Tanzanians rest. Indeed, there are indications that, in recent years, the momentum derived from these hopes and expectations has been on the decline. The present challenge is to ensure that deliberate efforts are made to rekindle the hope, confidence, faith and commitment among the men, women and the entire citizenry if the goals of the Vision are going to be realised, taking into account the changing conditions.
It is evident that both the global and the Tanzanian economy have changed fundamentally since the adoption of the Arusha Declaration. Tanzanians will therefore have to adapt to these new changes and realities.
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Specifically, it is important to recognise the following new characteristics of the national and global economy: The on-set of political and economic pluralism. Exposure of the limitations of policies of public sector-led development and administrative control of the economy in a centrally planned fashion. The recognition of individual initiative and the private sector as the central driving forces for building a strong, productive and renewing economy State welfare responsibilities are more focused on cost-effective ways of enhancing access to and the quality of social services.
The fast changing market conditions and technological developments The determinants of international economic relations are being influenced by post-cold war geopolitical factors. Nation-state economic behavior is being transformed by globalization and regionalism, trends which undermine inward looking economic nationalism. These characteristics pose new challenges which demand the adoption of new driving forces capable to graduate Tanzania from a least developed country to a middle income country with a high level of human development characterized in improvements in the quality of livelihood of the people.
In this context, the following three key driving forces need to be promoted and utilized: A developmental mindset imbued with confidence, commitment and empowering cultural values. Competence and a spirit of competitiveness; and Good governance and the rule of law.
The effective ownership of the development agenda coupled with the spirit of self-reliance, at all societal levels, are major driving forces for the realization of the Vision. Tanzanians should learn to appreciate and honour hard work, creativity, professionalism and entrepreneurship and strive to develop a culture of saving and investment.
The key elements of this developmental mindset and empowering culture are the following: Culture of saving and investment A culture and habit of saving and investing productively to generate wealth for individuals, households, communities and the nation has to be cultivated and promoted. In the same vein, a culture of wealth creation and accumulation for development must also be reinforced by a culture of maintenance to prevent unnecessary loss of capital stock.
Developmental community spirit A positive community spirit well balanced with individual initiative in the promotion and management of socio-economic development activities and in other national affairs, at all levels of society, should be developed by inculcating a culture of sharing of ideas and facilities within communities and between communities as one way of pooling resources for the good of all.
Incentive system to reward such attributes as excellence, creativity, innovation The management environment should be transformed at all levels. This can be achieved by putting into place incentives that encourage and reward individuals, groups and firms to embrace initiative, creativity, innovativeness and excellence.
This transformation must be reflected in the education system, training institutions, recruitment and promotion process and in business culture. Education as a strategic change agent Education should be treated as a strategic agent for mindset transformation and for the creation of a well educated nation, sufficiently equipped with the knowledge needed to competently and competitively solve the development challenges which face the nation.
In this light, the education system should be restructured and transformed qualitatively with a focus on promoting creativity and problem solving. Competence and competitiveness, as driving forces, will be realized through sound macroeconomic policies, adequate and reliable infrastructural development, quality education, effective utilization of domestic resources, higher productivity and strengthening of the capacity to effectively anticipate and respond to external changes.
Among the strategies for the realization of this goal are the following: Sound macroeconomic management Reorientation of the role of government and the enhancement of its core competence in providing leadership through public policy deserves the highest priority. The aim being to ensure stability, continuity and predictability of the environment in which economic decisions are made.
Infrastructural development Investment in infrastructure must be accorded the highest priority and be spearheaded by the government. This investment must also involve the private sector and communities generally. In particular, the development of the road network is absolutely essential for promoting rural development. Investment in energy, water and telecommunications is also central to the stimulation of local and foreign investment and for creating wealth and employment-generating activities.
Promotion of science and technology education The education system must instill a science and technology culture from its lowest levels, giving a high standard of education to all children between the age of 6 to Basic sciences and mathematics must be accorded signal importance in keeping with the demands of the modern technological age.
Science and technology education and awareness of its applications for promoting and enhancing productivity should permeate the whole society through continuous learning and publicity campaigns. Promotion of Information and Communication Technologies ICTs Advanced micro-electronic information and communication technologies ICTs are central to competitive social and economic transformation.
ICT costs are continuing to fall while their capabilities and resultant profitability enhancements are increasing.