Technology in Sport: competitive edge or unfair advantage? | PDD
That's because "sports evolve over time," as Brooke Borel writes in the introduction to a discussion on omarcafini.info of how science and technology. Learn about and revise commercialisation in sport with this BBC Bitesize GCSE It is also part of the commercial world, managed and marketed to make money. As technology becomes an increasingly important element of sport and sports . Because of improvements in technology, sports coverage is more This connection raises fan enthusiasm and contribution to the sporting.
The data shows that the volume of such articles demonstrates a surge in publication from to with the highest amount recorded in In addition, whilst the volume of articles seems to be reducing from this peak, the frequency of such articles is now continuing to be seen annually.
Discussion The debate surrounding controversy in sports technology was clearly detected by this literature review, but it is a relatively recent interest. In addition, it was noted that there were larger volumes of publication in this area in both — and — The reason for these increases can be attributed specifically to the cases surrounding both Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic limbs and the use of full length swim suit design.
The cause of these may well have been triggered by the close proximity of the Olympic Games held in both and whilst also generating great interest due to the relatively long period of time taken by the governing bodies to ultimately resolve them.
Technology in sport
For example, full length swimsuits were first debated inMagdalinski but not banned until Craik These durations have provided a significant length of time and opportunity for researchers to investigate or debate their merits. It should be noted that the merits of non-human based decision making systems is still not resolved in several sports, so it is expected that more publications regarding these will likely be seen in the future.
However, some of golfs governing bodies have pre-empted this by requiring any new equipment designs to be proactively submitted to them prior to obtaining any approval to be used in matches USGA A proactive approval policy such as this would reduce or minimise any future cases of controversy in other sports and likely minimise extensive debate in peer reviewed publications like those that occurred in both swimming and sport with a disability.
The concept of fairness or unfairness due to technological introduction was an overarching major theme in every case study example.
However, six consistent minor themes emerged from the case studies. These themes are proposed as: The use of assistive technology in able-bodied sport. Access and parity of sports equipment. The introduction of safety equipment in sport. Governing body oversight issues.
Each of these themes does not have fixed boundaries and it is possible that each case study may overlap with other emerging themes. However, for the conciseness of this review, each case study was categorised by which theme was felt to be most dominant.
The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review
Pistorius uses energy storage and return ESR lower-limb prostheses. These products are comprised of curved carbon fibre blades Marcellini et al.
Such technology initially saw competitive use at the Paralympic Games in Scholz et al. A stakeholder-based assessment has subsequently proposed that ESR technology should only be restorative in nature Dyer et al. The governing body of able-bodied athletics, the IAAF, commissioned a report in late to assess the technology Baker ; Marcellini et al. However, this research did not consider the performance of the technology during the many phases of a longer sprint event such as the acceleration from the starting blocks Wolbring and Tynedalrunning the bends, or any other additional disadvantages Pistorius felt he personally had Jones and Wilson Pistorius himself then commissioned a counter-study Marcellini et al.
His ban was challenged at the Court of Arbitration for Sport Marcellini et al. A more recent and similar case to Pistorius was that of Markus Rehm. Rehm is a uni-lateral lower-limb amputee who also wished to compete in able-bodied sport in the long jump event Baker The controversy concerned the athlete specifically launching himself by using his prosthesis rather than his biological limb.
The German Athletics Association considered his prosthetic limb an unfair advantage and would not allow him to participate Baker The exact nature of this advantage has not been disclosed, nor investigated in peer reviewed literature to date.
Another prominent case identified was that of Casey Martin Baker ; Burkett et al.
BBC Bitesize - GCSE Physical Education - Commercialisation - WJEC - Revision 1
Martin was a professional golfer and a registered disabled citizen who suffered from a circulatory disorder in his lower right leg Baker ; Charlish and Riley ; Hutzler known as Klippel-Trenaunay-Webber syndrome Francis He attempted to use this technology to support his transit between strokes Burkett et al. Golf carts were banned in professional golf at the time as it was felt that such technology would change the nature of the game by reducing the impact of the walk between each hole Charlish and Riley and provide players using them with an advantage over other golfers Baker ; Burkett et al.
Martin attempted to challenge the PGA decision using the American legal system Francis by proposing that such technology was part of his professional occupation Burkett et al. The Supreme Court ruled that use of the cart would not be a fundamental alteration of the game Franciswas not considered part of the sport and therefore would not disadvantage other players and organisers Hutzler There were safety concerns regarding the use of wheelchairs at the Boston Marathon which led to them being outlawed in Hutzler Whilst these case studies have generally been legally resolved, there still remains a lack of understanding of the role of prosthetic equipment use in able-bodied sport.
The overarching controversy surrounding of the suit was whether such technology was fair Craik ; James ; Magdalinski ; Partridge ; Zettler accessible Magdalinski unfair due to its sponsorship limitations Partridge ; Zettler or too expensive Zettler Finally, it was also claimed that the suits compressed muscles and reduced muscle vibration Craiktherefore improving endurance performance through the facilitation of venous return Mountjoy et al.
However, a defence was provided by Speedo that suggested the suit only improved the management of existing forces rather generating new ones Craik The introduction of the Speedo suit in was shown to improve a swimmers performance by However, this has been countered by suggesting that the recent return to more basic swimsuit designs has proved no handicap at all Stefani and therefore that the full suits proposed benefits might actually be fundamentally psychological in nature Zettler After 43 records were broken in 40 events at the World Swimming Championships Partridge ; Burkett ; Mountjoy et al.
However, any previously established records were still allowed to stand Baker The introduction of safety equipment in sport The impact of the call for or the introduction of safety equipment has occurred in three case studies identified in this review. Controversy regarding American Football headgear surrounded the introduction of plastic-based helmets in Gelberg which were designed to replace the leather headgear that athletes had previously worn Miah The new plastic helmets were lighter, stronger and did not require re-branding after each game Gelberg In was envisaged that the adoption of more effective materials and design would reduce head related injuries to players Miah However, whilst the number of head injuries has been suggested as decreasing, the severity of those that did occur had been proposed to actually increase Miah The suggested reasoning behind this is that players would use the helmet itself as an instrument to perform harder tackles Miah or to create a greater sense of invulnerability Gelberg Whilst the American judicial system and in its law ultimately clarified liability or blame in any contentious cases involving use of a helmet, it was suggested that potentially dangerous and aggressive tackles have continued regardless Gelberg Similar parallels were also evident in amateur boxing whereby controversy was created with their introduction of safety head gear Dyer et al.
Much like in American Football, the headgear was designed to reduce impact forces but may have indirectly created feelings of athlete invulnerability and therefore encouraged boxers to hit harder or to defend their head less.
Alternatively, despite any safety benefits, discomfort or intimidation has been an alternative problem for headgear adoption. In the end, the governing body implemented mandatory use from Bachynski The use of non-human decision-making in sport The key use of non-human decision-making technology has occurred in several sports including football Svantesson ; Nlandu ; Nafzigertennis Collins and Evans; Nafzigercricket Singh ; Collins and Evans; Nafzigerrugby, golf, rowing, stock car racing, basketball, American football and wrestling Nafziger It was felt in this review that these could be reviewed under two distinctively different themes.
These included video replay technology Svantesson ; Collins and Evans ; Nafziger or line judgement technology Svantesson Video replay technology Video replay technology has proven controversial in examples such as golf, wrestling, rugby, American football and sculling Nafziger Criticisms of video-replay technology when used in sport is that the stopping and starting of the game to check the video of a contentious moment will disrupt the flow and pace of football, Svantesson ; Nafziger cricket Singh and in ice hockey Nafziger However, in both wrestling and rugby, the refusal by officials to review match footage at key moments then caused controversy which led to legal challenges Nafziger Post-game video replay has been successfully implemented feasibly into sport.
- The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review
- The importance of social media in sport
For example, ingolfer Brian Gay was credited with a birdie shot at the Honda Classic. However, the use of such systems either in real time or after the sport has concluded does not ensure a clear decision or outcome.
For example, when a pilot programme was formally implemented in collegiate American football to check judgement call decision making, whilst only 50 of 11, games were actually reviewable, only half would have been overturned. This equated to a proportion of incorrect calls of less than a quarter of one percent Nafziger Alejandro Agag, chief executive of Formula E Holdings, says: We never had that before.
We were just a business-to-business industry selling our content to broadcasters and rights to sponsors. Spectators now have the ability to make additional purchases or seat upgrades, for example, from the venue. The challenge for businesses is to find ways of measuring the value of social media Denise Taylor, chief information officer for AEG, which owns the lease on the O2, says: There are opportunities for revenue generation whether through ticketing platforms where we can offer upsales on tickets, or build products based on having more customer data.
An investment in digital media may come back through other revenue streams. The more popular your product is, the better rights values you can attract. These initiatives and many others will be explored as the Business of Sport Series progresses. Rights packages need to be re-booted for the social media area, particularly in the area of exclusive content.