Their decisions determine not only the evolution of the population growth rate The relationships between human capital and health economics theories, and As the exogenous growth rate of technological progress occurs at a constant rate . And poverty and resource degradation can exist on thinly populated lands, such as the On the other hand, high rates of population growth that eat into surpluses There, improvements in medicine and public health have led to a sharp drop in trade production relationships limit possibilities of using international trade to. Int J Environ Res Public Health. . The destructive effects of human activities on vegetation have exerted an just show an inverse relationship between population growth and vegetation cover as many .. from negative to positive correlation, occurs at the population density of about 2, persons·km−2.
The migrations within, as well as outside, the Arab world reveal an interesting demographic phenomenon that requires further research: However, the transformations in public health statistics related to mortality—the impact of demographic changes—depict a new era in the Arab world. Introduction The Arab world has been undergoing transitions [ 123 ] in all fields of life—social, economic, and health—due to changing demographic conditions [ 45 ].
The achievement of low mortality [ 16 ] as a result of improvements in medical technologies [ 4 ], housing, water quality, sanitation, electric supply, public hygiene, health, and educational infrastructure [ 7 ] leads to improved health and quality of life [ 8 ], which in turn facilitates values social and economicas well as a desire to bring children up with great hope [ 4 ]—a sign of fertility transition [ 2910 ].
The resultant improvement in population health leads to socioeconomic benefits, as seen in less developed countries [ 4 ]. The demographic transition theory propounds that a large increase in population is due to the gap between birth and death rates during the early stages of industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic transformation; this seems to play a role in what is happening in the Arab world today [ 179 ]. A distinctive region both geographically and demographically, the Arab world is spread across two continents Asia and Africahas a common language and lifestyle and is coordinated by the League of Arab Nations.
Having two thirds of the known petroleum reserves worldwide and given the fast pace of its modernization, urbanization, and economic transformation, the region experiences a rapid growth in population [ 1 ], due partly to a natural increase and partly to migration; the latter refers to both internal migration, including inter-Arab movements [ 5 ] within the region, and employment-oriented migration from elsewhere [ 611 ]. The resultant demographic dividend and youth bulge in the Arab world [ 112 ], characterized by a demographic lag—high fertility and low mortality [ 1314 ]—put pressure on social, economic, and political institutions to capitalize on the growing pool of potential workers by expanding educational systems, labor markets, housing supply, and health systems to adapt to the needs of people and national economies [ 13 ].
This, in turn, exerts pressure to decrease the fertility rate faster [ 2 ], which is influenced by another set of variables: Thus, the rapid population growth in the Arab world since the s puts pressure on the labor market, education, housing, health, and other public services that influence family formation and future population growth, toward reducing the youth population in the future [ 151617 ] while promoting life expectancy [ 1819 ].
The demographic lag exaggerates population growth because the fast transition in mortality rates is not accompanied by a transition in fertility [ 136 ], despite having economic and social development consequences that influence life span and human welfare [ 420 ].
Components and Public Health Impact of Population Growth in the Arab World
Thus, population growth is affected by the speed of transition in fertility and mortality, in addition to the associated economic and political changes that determine population movement and urbanization [ 9 ].
Components of population growth, namely, natural increase and net migration, have a bearing not only on the demographic transition but also on the socioeconomic and infrastructural development in a country.
The Arab world, a union of 22 member states spread across a vast geographic area, experiences natural growth and net migration in varying degrees [ 69 ] depending on the socioeconomic infrastructure. The slow pace of demographic transition creates footprints on vital statistics [ 2 ], namely, demographic and public health indicators, in turn offering improvements in quality of life, administrative infrastructure, and efficiency of utility networking [ 4 ], as an improvement in the population profile results from a combination of variables.
Arab countries as a whole progressed remarkably during the second half of the previous century [ 15 ], as reflected in the reproduction, infant and child mortality, and life expectancy rates. The rapid fall in birth rates [ 11 ] as a result of changes in lifestyle—age at marriage, female education and employment, urbanization, nucleation of families, and value systems [ 1 ]—signals a new era of demographic revolution a series of research and development efforts leading to fertility decisions, mortality control, migration laws and regulations, and healthy life expectancy in the Arab world.
The research questions addressed by this paper are: Objectives This research aims to: Census Bureau [ 21 ] for 3 time periods: The Arab countries are spread over two continents, Asia and Africa. This classification has relevance because it reflects geographic, economic, developmental, and infrastructural dimensions as against the classification into three groups on the basis of fertility level [ 17 ].
Data on Oman for the year were not available; thus, data were used. Similarly, data of on Yemen for and were not available, so data were used instead. Zimbabwe now leads sub-Saharan Africa in the use of modern contraceptive methods. Managing Distribution and Mobility Population distribution across a country's different regions is influenced by the geographical spread of economic activity and opportunity. Most countries are committed in theory to balancing regional development, but are rarely able to do this in practice.
Governments able to spread employment opportunities throughout their nations and especially through their countrysides will thus limit the rapid and often uncontrolled growth of one or two cities. China's effort to support village-level industries in the countryside is perhaps the most ambitious of this sort of national programme. Migration from countryside to city is not in itself a bad thing; it is part of the process of economic development and diversification.
The issue is not so much the overall rural urban shift but the distribution of urban growth between large metropolitan cities and smaller urban settlements. A commitment to rural development implies more attention to realizing the development potential of all regions, particularly those that are ecologically disadvantaged See Chapter 6. This would help reduce migration from these areas due to lack of opportunities.
But governments should avoid going too far in the opposite direction, encouraging people to cove into sparsely populated areas such as tropical moist forests, where the land may not be able to provide sustainable livelihoods.
Demographic phenomena constitute the heart of the African Development problematique. They are the data that lead most analysts to project a continuing and deepening crisis in Africa.
Components and Public Health Impact of Population Growth in the Arab World
There is no doubt of the imperative and urgent need for a far reaching population policy to be adopted and vigorously implemented by African governments.
One issue of relevance that requires further research is the use of the tax system as a means for controlling population growth and discouraging rural-urban migration. To slow down population growth, should families without children be given a tax incentive or tax break? Should a tax penalty be imposed for each child after a fixed number of children, considering that the tax system has not solved the population migration problem?
From Liability to Asset When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of the available resources, it can become a liability in efforts to improve people's welfare. But talking of population just as numbers glosses over an important point: People are also a creative resource, and this creativity is an asset societies must tap.
To nurture and enhance that asset, people's physical well-being must be improved through better nutrition, health care, and so on. And education must be provided to help them become more capable and creative, skilful, productive, and better able to deal with day-to-day problems. All this has to be achieved through access to and participation in the processes of sustainable development. I noticed that you have tried to separate religion from the technological side of life.
Is that not exactly, the mistake in the West in developing technology, without ethics, without religion? If that is the case, and we have the chance to develop a new direction, should we not advise the group on technology to pursue a different kind of technology which has as its base not only the rationality, but also the spiritual aspect?
Is this a dream or is this something we cannot avoid? Good health is the foundation of human welfare and productivity. Hence a broad-based health policy is essential for sustainable development.
In the developing world, the critical problems of ill health are closely related to environmental conditions and development problems. Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the tropics, and its prevalence is closely related to wastewater disposal and drainage. Large dams and irrigation systems have led to sharp increases in the incidence of schistosomiasis snail fever in many areas.
Inadequacies in water supply and sanitation are direct causes of other widespread and debilitating diseases such as diarrhoeas and various worm infestations. Though much has been achieved in recent years, 1.
In this sense, they really require a developmental solution. In the developing world, the number of water taps nearby is a better indication of the health of a community than is the number of hospital beds.
Human Population: Lesson Plans – Population Reference Bureau
Other examples of links between development, environmental conditions, and health include air pollution and the respiratory illnesses it brings, the impact of housing conditions on the spread of tuberculosis, the effects of carcinogens and toxic substances, and the exposure to hazards in the workplace and elsewhere. Many health problems arise from the nutritional deficiencies that occur in virtually all developing countries, but most acutely in low-income areas.
Most malnutrition is related to a shortage of calories or protein or both, but some diets also lack specific elements and compounds, such as iron and iodine. Health will be greatly improved in low-income areas by policies that lead to the production of more of the cheap foods the poor traditionally eat - coarse grains and root crops.
These health, nutrition, environment, and development links imply that health policy cannot be conceived of purely in terms of curative or preventive medicine, or even in terms of greater attention to public health. Integrated approaches are needed that reflect key health objectives in areas such as food production; water supply and sanitation: Beyond this, it is necessary to identify vulnerable groups and their health risks and to ensure that the socio-economic factors that underlie these risks are taken into account in other areas of development policy.
WHO's 'Health for All' strategy should be broadened far beyond the provision of medical workers and clinics, to cover health-related interventions in all development activities.Overpopulation – The Human Explosion Explained
Within the narrower area of health care, providing primary health care facilities and making sure that everyone has the opportunity to use them are appropriate starting points.