Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
Can people create relationships characterized by high responsiveness, and High quality close relationships contribute to mental and physical well-being; poor quality Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. . In: Wheeler L, editor. Dr van Selm is co-editor of Oxford University Press' Journal of Refugee Studies, participation in local government', Geography Bulletin, () 33(1): 25–29; ' The An examination of inter-communal relations policy in Notes on Contributors xv. inter-communal relations in the Balkans. ties of political religion. e d i t o r. ISIM Newsletter 3. July 48 pages. ISSN 1 Editorial Office.
Remarkably, Lachman Singh story follows the same pattern of the martyr-victim-oppressor triangular relationship that I have already mentioned. A period of great instability and uncertainty for the Sikhs, who greatly objected to the creation of Pakistan then to the idea of partition, and supported various counter-schemes such as Azad Panjab, Sikhistan or Khalistan, opposed by both the Congress and the League.
Your trials await you. Be ready for self-destruction like the Japs and the Nazis …. Similar speeches were delivered by leaders of the three communities, equally busy in preparing for civil war. The carefully nurtured memory of past conflicts played a major part in the outburst of violence surrounding partition—and this is especially true of Muslim-Sikh antagonism.
See also Pandey McLeod for this in This partition of memory was all the easier in the case of Panjab that partition of the territory led to an entire exchange of population, to the extent that there are no Hindus and Sikhs left in West Panjab and hardly any Muslims in East Panjab except for the former principality of Malherkotla and Qadian. But did they really meet in the diaspora?
Here is the question I wish now to address. Sociologists have established a linkage between colonial representations and policy vis a vis the various communities the British ruled—in particular their role in fostering sharply defined communal identities—and British policy towards immigrants in post-colonial Britain.
This policy, as it culminated in the s, deals with communities, not individuals as in France, defined primarily, in the case of South Asians, in terms of religious affiliation. It has more specifically institutionalized and legitimized the most conservative or orthodox definitions of these identities.
This has had several consequences: South Asian community leaders are primarily religious leaders specially so in the case of Sikhs and Muslims ; religious-based organisations have received the greatest share of public support and funding, they have been more successful at mobilising immigrants than pan-Asian or pan-Indian ones and they do so on religious issues the turban of the Sikhs, the provision of halal meat in school for Muslim children….
In short, communities are encouraged to stress their cultural specificities, while competing for public resources and recognition, and in this process minority identities tend to be reified and institutionalised.
Their mobilisation for the right to wear the turban as a bus driver, then on a motorcycle or in school culminated in a House of Lords ruling ofgranting them the status of an ethnic group. This specific recognition allowed them to benefit from the legislation against discrimination paradoxically defined on ethnic or racial grounds, not religious one that has been so far denied to Muslims.Dick DOUWES: Shrine Politics in Lebanon and Syria: Reorganizing Sacred Space
British multicultural policy, although officially striving for the opposite, has resulted in stiff competition between communities, defined internally as homogenous and externally by rigid boundaries. So much so that I quickly decided to avoid direct questioning on the issue of relations with the Muslims. But it popped in by the backdoor, so to say, and in that respect, the most interesting information was definitely drawn from participant observation and informal interviews.
Community literature published by various British Sikh organisations and gurdwaras has also been a valuable source.
Frères ennemis? Relations between Panjabi Sikhs and Muslims in the Diaspora
The first one, particularly prominent among Sikh students, revolves around the proselytism of Muslim fellow students on campuses. Christian proselytism is also resented, and Sikhs perceive themselves as easy prey to the allegedly aggressive conversion activities of those two groups.
The issue of conversion, discussed above in the colonial context, is crucial in perceptions of the Self and the Other s. Sikhs impute proselytism to Christians and Muslims and despite the thousands of Western converts the Gore Sikhs claim that Sikhism is a non-proselytising religion.
This results in a sense of threat, a perceived weakness vis a vis aggressive and numerically dominant Others. Notably, in the diaspora, conflicting memories are not imported as such but reinvented, and in this case, reinforced by the West own perceptions and fears about radical Islam— hence the influence of such external events as the Iranian revolution, the Rushdie affair, the Islamic scarf issue, the 11th September or the 7th July bombing on inter-community relations in Western host countries.
A Challenge to Sikhism by G. Sidhu, published in for the tricentennary celebrations of the Khalsa and Sikh Religion and Islam, A Comparative Study, by the same author with Gurmukh Singh as co-author, published in Both these works belong to the expanding genre of educational and religious Sikh literature written for the second and third generations of pardesi Sikhs settled abroad.
Where do these attacks originate from? So at stake is the demonstration of the true nature of Sikhism as a separate religion. But interestingly, they are also the product of international migration, of the encounter of Sikhs and Muslims in the West and are fashioned by British multicultural context, more specifically by the well established practice of interfaith dialogue, in which Sikhs mainly through the Sikh Missionary Society, based in Southall have been quite active.
As a compilation of the correspondence exchanged over several months between the author, a member of the Sikh Missionary Society, and a Panjabi Muslim he had sympathised with at inter-faith meetings in the South of England, A Challenge to Sikhism appears as a failed attempt at interfaith dialogue.
Letters from the Muslim correspondent to G. Sidhu are indeed very offending, his repeated attempts to prove the superiority of Islam over Sikhism understandably upset the author, and fall rather short of a true spirit of dialogue.
Sikhs endo-definitions being antonymous with their perceptions of the Muslims, Sikhism is defined as an egalitarian religion, encouraging the participation of women in the religious and social domains, banning discrimination against women, discouraging the practice of purdah. Their understanding of the status of women in Islam revolves around a cluster of practices seen as emblematic: The text deals with this topic exclusively through lengthy quotations from the Quran and the Guru Granth Sahib.
This purely textual and normative approach allows for a maximum of differentiation between the two religious traditions. It also conveniently leaves aside the question of actual religious and social practices, shared by Sikhs and Muslims, and in fact by all Panjabis.
It evinces in both communities a complex array of collective emotions, fantasies and representations, fed by traumatic past events and reconfigured in Britain. In this kind of narratives, Sikh girls are considered as easy prey for Muslim boys: These boys are supposedly motivated by religious extremism and their will to convert the Sikhs to Islam. As in the case of exogamous relationships, the community of the girl feels its integrity, its izzat threatened.
To illustrate my point, I shall refer to the protest that met the proposed release of a Pakistani film in the UK in November Larki Panjaaban a Panjabi girl tells the story of a Sikh girl from India who while in Pakistan with her family to visit Sikh shrines falls in love with a Pakistani boy. Her family when discovering this relationship sends her to Malaysia, where her Pakistani lover manages to meet her and finally marry her.
In the original script, she converts to Islam, and soon after it is found that after all she was originally a Muslim who had been brought up by Sikhs. Interestingly, some British Sikhs mostly from the Muslim-Sikh Federation greatly objected to the conversion bit of the story and successfully put pressure on the film director, based in Bradford, to alter the script so that the girl remained Sikh.
Commonalities and transcending of religious and national cleavages: They migrated predominantly from rural areas to post-industrial Britain as a replacement workforce, much needed in a post-war reconstruction economy. They belong to dominant rural castes the Jatsand originate from delimited areas, mainly from the Doaba the central districts of East Panjab in the case of Sikhs, from Mirpur in Azad KashmirFaisalabad and Jhelum districts in West Panjab in that of Muslims.
Involved in a process of chain migration, the pioneers relied on the biradari clan to settle down. Concentrated in the same regions, mostly Greater London and the Midlands, in the same inner cities areas, they were at first engaged in the same occupations. But after the pioneering phase of migration, a process of differentiation started in the early s: Sikhs called their family earlier; with the arrival of East African Sikhs, they also moved away from industrial, non-qualified employment into self-employment and the professions.
This shift explains why they suffered much less than Pakistanis from the acute industrial crisis of the s. This differentiation has resulted in a much better socio-economic profile for Indians as a whole as compared to Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. According to the census, Sikhs in Britain amount toout of a total of 1 million Indians and Pakistanis toAs is the case with most minority identity constructions, the South Asian or Asian label is in Britain as much an ascribed as an asserted one.
But besides this reactive aspect, there is a positive identification to this category among the second and third generation, based on the socio-economic commonalities alluded to above, on the rejection of the cleavages of the parent generation, seen as irrelevant in Britain and on the perception of cultural similarities. These cultural similarities food, dress, social norms One of the most powerful ones is Panjabyat.
This term of recent coinage, roughly translated as Panjabi identity, refers to the cultural heritage, the social practices, the values shared by all Panjabis, Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs, Indians, Pakistanis, and increasingly the diaspora. It is heavily loaded with nostalgia for pre-partition undivided Panjab, idealized as a unique space of communal harmony.
Its usage tends to be restricted to intellectual, literary, academic or media circles, and although these valorize popular culture in their definition of Panjabyat, the term is not much used by the people.
The issue of language serves as a bridge between cultural and political definitions. In both senses, partition is the critical event, an incomprehensible aberration, a terrible blow to Panjabis and Panjabyat struck variably by the British, the Muslim League or the Congress. For its proponents on both sides of the border, India and Pakistan were created at the cost of a united Panjab, and since then the two nation-states have suppressed Panjabi cultural and political identity, within a centralised political framework.
Beyond these common roots and their antagonist relations to the Nation-State, Panjabi nationalist movements have taken very different shapes on each side, reflecting in a way the different position occupied by West Panjab in Pakistan and East Panjab in India.
But this domination has been achieved at the cost of Panjabyat, subsumed into Pakistani national identity, through in particular the imposition of Urdu as national language.
Secondly, in India, Panjabyat, in the political and cultural sense, has been the preserve of one religious community, the Sikhs, Panjabi nationalism meaning in fact Sikh nationalism, Panjabyat equating with Sikh identity.
And Sikh ethno-nationalism has been fashioned since independence by its opposition with the central government, by a sense of alienation, of being discriminated as a minority.
Although this confrontation with Delhi has been a long-standing component of Panjabyat much before independenceit has taken a new form with the rise of Sikh separatism the demand for Khalistanand the equation of the central government with the Hindu majority. Besides, in their conflict with the Indian State, it is notorious that Khalistanis have secured some kind of support from Pakistan, thus reconfiguring in a new way the Hindu-Muslim-Sikh triad that we have discussed above. Panjabi language is clearly the most important binding element.
Within patterns of code switching, characteristic of most migrants and reinforced by the specific relations of Panjabi to Urdu and Hindi see belowPanjabi is preferred to convey intimate matters, emotions and jokes. Panjabi is also the medium of a literature, a vernacular corpus of epic poems, folk tales, ballads and songs that has fashioned a common imaginary, spiritual values and social practices and whose most popular figures are Waris Shah and Baba Farid.
The Difference Between Interpersonal Relations & Skills | omarcafini.info
The World Panjabi Congress, created by Fakhar Zhaman in Lahore, with most of its members in the diaspora, has been the herald of Panjabyat for the past 20 years, and remarkably one where Panjabi Muslims are significantly represented, which is not the case in most organisations. The Panjabi Bulletin, edited by a young Sikh from Birmingham, focused on the promotion and preservation of Panjabi folk music, in danger of disappearing both in Panjab and in the diaspora, with the success of commercial music bhangra.
To avoid any essentialist slip in my argument, I wish to stress that if there is such a thing as a Panjabi ethos, it is of course not a fixed, objective category, but partly a product of representations and stereotypes fashioned by others.
Firstly, the issue of language is not as consensual as it seems. I have termed it as the strongest bond, it is also a divisive one, through the differentiation between spoken and written language along religious lines.
Panjabi has three scripts: Persian, Devanagari and Gurmukhi, the sacred language of the Sikhs, the only script specific to Panjabi, whereas the others are used by Urdu for Persian script and Hindi for Devanagari script. Historically the high language, the language of culture and power of North India, including Panjab, was Persian, then Urdu.
In the pre-partition period, Urdu and English would be taught at school and Panjabi spoken at home, so that only Sikhs would learn written Panjabi in Gurmukhi script in the gurdwara. These language patterns have consolidated religious boundaries Rahman After partition, the cleavage between scripts and oral language along religious affiliation has been reinforced by the national divide, Urdu becoming the national language of Pakistan and Hindi that of India.
Hence, they alone demanded in the late s a better share for Panjabi on BBC radio programs on the basis that Panjabi was the mother-tongue of the majority of British South Asians. This situation is reminiscent of the pre-partition period and of the Panjabi Suba campaign in the s, when Panjabi Hindus declared Hindi, instead of Panjabi, as their mother tongue.
As a result, Panjabi language and Panjabyat tend to equate in the diaspora as in India with Sikhs, and very little space is left for, or as a matter of fact claimed by Hindus and Muslims. Indeed they rightly point at the involvement of former Khalistanis, with well established links with the Pakistan government, in Panjabi organisations such as the World Muslim Sikh Federation, founded in the UK.
Beyond these political underpinnings, it seems the triad, as an unstable and unequal set of relations, can only operate at the advantage of a pair and at the cost of a third party. And in the current definition of Panjabyat, Hindus are the third party. The reopening of borders since has resulted in a spectacular increase and diversification of exchanges across Wagah border peace marches, theatre and music tours, cricket tours, and pilgrimages It will be interesting to follow their influence on community relations within the diaspora, and in particular in improving relations between Muslims and Sikhs.
Conclusion 57Relationships between minority groups in a migration context are fashioned by a complex combination of variables. In the case of Sikhs and Muslims, representations borrowed from a partly reconstructed past are certainly predominant.
The legacy of partition is being reassessed in South Asia: In the diaspora, particularly for the youth, the borders and cleavages inherited from partition are increasingly meaningless, and are being superseded by a common South Asian identity, produced by migration, or more regional ones such as Panjabyat. While reifying and institutionalizing cultural differences, it encourages minority groups to be internally homogenous at the expense of plural, overlapping or heterodox definitions of identity and externally divided by tight boundaries.
Besides, Indians as a whole, be they Sikhs or Hindus, have for long been adamant to differentiate themselves from Pakistanis and Bangladeshis: Baumann, Gerd Contesting Culture: Discourses of Identity in Multi-ethnic London, Cambridge: Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills.
Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.
Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing. Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life.
Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity.
Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous. Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy. Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners.
They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life. Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences. On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style. Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world.
Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc. Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal.
A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli.
One commonly studied factor is physical proximity also known as propinquity. The MIT Westgate studies famously showed that greater physical proximity between incoming students in a university residential hall led to greater relationship initiation.
Another important factor in the initiation of new relationships is similarity. Put simply, individuals tend to be attracted to and start new relationships with those who are similar to them. These similarities can include beliefs, rules, interests, culture, education, etc. Individuals seek relationships with like others because like others are most likely to validate shared beliefs and perspectives, thus facilitating interactions that are positive, rewarding and without conflict.
Development — Development of interpersonal relationships can be further split into committed versus non-committed romantic relationships, which have different behavioral characteristics. More committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater resource display, appearance enhancement, love and care, and verbal signs of possession. In contrast, less committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater jealousy induction. In terms of gender differences, men used greater resource display than women, who used more appearance enhancement as a mate-retention strategy than men.
Some important qualities of strong, enduring relationships include emotional understanding and effective communication between partners. Idealization of one's partner is linked to stronger interpersonal bonds. Idealization is the pattern of overestimating a romantic partner's positive virtues or underestimating a partner's negative faults in comparison to the partner's own self-evaluation.
In general, individuals who idealize their romantic partners tend to report higher levels of relationship satisfaction. The presence of all three components characterizes consummate lovethe most durable type of love. In addition, the presence of intimacy and passion in marital relationships predicts marital satisfaction. Also, commitment is the best predictor of relationship satisfaction, especially in long-term relationships. Positive consequences of being in love include increased self-esteem and self-efficacy.
The emotion of love comes from the anticipation of pleasure. Particular duties arise from each person's particular situation in relation to others.
The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: Juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence and seniors have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors.
A focus on mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures to this day. Minding relationships[ edit ] The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced. Minding is the "reciprocal knowing process involving the nonstop, interrelated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of persons in a relationship.
Jung 's theory of psychological types. Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed.
The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples by Aleksandr Bukalov et al.
The study of socionic type allocation in casually selected married couples confirmed the main rules of the theory of intertype relations in socionics. Culture of appreciation[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.