Elizabeth I of England - Wikipedia
Elizabeth I - the last Tudor monarch - was born at Greenwich on 7 September , the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Her early life . Elizabeth I (7 September – 24 March ) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. .. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships. Author Topic: Elizabeth I and Henry VIII (Read times) I thought it would be interesting to discuss Elizabeth's relationship with her father, Henry VIII, in all its aspects. 1. he was her only parent from a very early age.
Both proved unenthusiastic,  and in Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnleywho carried his own claim to the English throne. The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Darnley quickly became unpopular and was murdered in February by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell.
Shortly afterwards, on 15 MayMary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband. Elizabeth confronted Mary about the marriage, writing to her: How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.WOMAN and TIME: Queen Elizabeth I Tudor
The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James VIwho had been born in June James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth.
Henry VIII and Elizabeth I - The Lion and His Cub - The Anne Boleyn Files
Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England, where she was imprisoned for the next nineteen years. Mary was soon the focus for rebellion.
In there was a major Catholic rising in the North ; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolkand put her on the English throne. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head to the Babington Plot ofElizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.
By lateshe had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot. The sincerity of Elizabeth's remorse and whether or not she wanted to delay the warrant have been called into question both by her contemporaries and later historians. The exception was the English occupation of Le Havre from October to Junewhich ended in failure when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.
An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over whom the queen had little control. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion. The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of Augustin which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch. The expedition was led by her former suitor, the Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action.
Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester's arrival in Holland,  had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester's, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign.
Elizabeth, on the other hand, wanted him "to avoid at all costs any decisive action with the enemy".
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to force her to accept sovereignty over the Netherlands,  which so far she had always declined. She wrote to Leicester: We could never have imagined had we not seen it fall out in experience that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name.
Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril. The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers.
Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader, and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics led to the failure of the campaign.
Elizabeth I: Troubled child to beloved Queen
Spanish Armada Portrait from —, by Nicholas Hilliard, around the time of the voyages of Sir Francis Drake Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships in the Caribbean in and In he made a successful raid on Cadizdestroying the Spanish fleet of war ships intended for the Enterprise of England,  as Philip II had decided to take the war to England.
A combination of miscalculation,  misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelineswhich dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast, defeated the Armada. He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches: My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.
Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power. One of three known versions of the " Armada Portrait ". When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle. The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen.
If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times. But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".
The English fleet suffered a catastrophic defeat with 11,—15, killed, wounded or died of disease    and 40 ships sunk or captured. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports.
The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective. He withdrew in disarray in Decemberhaving lost half his troops. Inthe campaign of John Norreyswho led 3, men to Brittanywas even more of a disaster. As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support.
In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January Henry abandoned the siege in April. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.
During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmondinan estimated 30, Irish people starved to death.
The Childhood of Queen Elizabeth I
The poet and colonist Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same". To her frustration,  he made little progress and returned to England in defiance of her orders. He was replaced by Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoywho took three years to defeat the rebels. O'Neill finally surrendered ina few days after Elizabeth's death. Russia Elizabeth continued to maintain the diplomatic relations with the Tsardom of Russia originally established by her half-brother.
She often wrote to Ivan the Terrible on amicable terms, though the Tsar was often annoyed by her focus on commerce rather than on the possibility of a military alliance. The Tsar even proposed to her once, and during his later reign, asked for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England should his rule be jeopardised.
Upon Ivan's death, he was succeeded by his simple-minded son Feodor. Unlike his father, Feodor had no enthusiasm in maintaining exclusive trading rights with England. Feodor declared his kingdom open to all foreigners, and dismissed the English ambassador Sir Jerome Boweswhose pomposity had been tolerated by Ivan. Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. Giles Fletcher, to demand from the regent Boris Godunov that he convince the Tsar to reconsider.
The negotiations failed, due to Fletcher addressing Feodor with two of his many titles omitted. Elizabeth continued to appeal to Feodor in half appealing, half reproachful letters.
She proposed an alliance, something which she had refused to do when offered one by Feodor's father, but was turned down. She was also expected to acknowledge the annulment of her father's marriage to her mother, Katharine of Aragon, and the validity of his new marriage to Anne Boleyn. Not surprisingly Mary hated Anne Boleyn and her relationship with Elizabeth was marred throughout their lives.
She was refused access to her mother Katharine of Aragon, who stubbornly refused to acknowledge Anne as the Queen. Meanwhile Elizabeth was afforded all the courtesy due to a Princess of the royal blood.
Her mother and father paid great attention to the running of the nursery. Anne Boleyn choose the materials and colors for the clothes of the Princess. This was extremely important as the clothes worn during the Elizabethan era reflected the status of the wearer. Elizabeth had her own dress maker called William Loke, who would have been well aware of the importance of the clothes made for Princess Elizabeth.
Lady Margaret Bryan was experienced in this post as she had also helped with the early childhood and upbringing of Princess Mary. The early childhood of Queen Elizabeth was therefore taken care of, not by her parents, but by Lady Bryan.
Elizabeth would see her parents on special occasions and festivals such as Christmas. Anne Boleyn entrusted Matthew Parker with the spiritual well being of her daughter. Elizabeth always trusted Matthew Parker - her sister Mary hated him due to his Protestant beliefs. But her fortunes fell with the downfall of her mother, the tragic Anne Boleyn. Anne Boleyn became pregnant again by January but she miscarried.
Another pregnancy followed but the child, which was reported to have been a boy, was stillborn. Anne's failure to produce a male heir proved to be her downfall. Henry believed that their union was cursed and his attentions turned to one of her ladies-in-waiting, Jane Seymour. Anne was arrested and condemned to death on the charges of treason, adultery and incest with her brother George Boleyn.
Anne's body and head were buried in an unmarked grave in the Chapel of St. Elizabeth was not yet three years old. Lady Bryan did her best to protect Elizabeth from the terrible events which had befallen her mother. Elizabeth, like her half-sister before her, was stripped of her title of Princess and was to be referred to as the Lady Elizabeth. When Elizabeth was told of this change in status she replied "how haps it governor, yesterday my Lady Princess, today but my Lady Elizabeth?
At this time Elizabeth suffered with some neglect and Lady Bryan was forced to write to Secretary Thomas Cromwell stating that Elizabeth was outgrowing her infant clothes and there was no household money to properly clothe her and no direction on how her upbringing or social status was to change. She complained that Elizabeth "hath neither gown, nor kirtle, nor petticoat.
When Elizabeth was just four years old she was removed from the care of Lady Margaret Bryan. The birth of Edward was of supreme importance to Henry and Lady Bryan was entrusted with his care as she had for his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth. Her name was Katharine Champernowne.