Napoleon III - Wikipedia
Napoleon III, born Charles-Louis Napoleon in (also known as Napoleon Bonaparte, French Revolutionary War general, First Consul of the Republic and. French emperor Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, regained the In , he published the first of his own writings on political and. Rosa de Pena says: "The irony about Victor Hugo turning against Napoleon III is that, compared to his uncle, Louis Napoleon was quite a decent sort.". RH: The.
He was aware that the popularity of Napoleon Bonaparte was steadily increasing in France; the Emperor was the subject of heroic poems, books and plays. Huge crowds had gathered in Paris on 15 December when the remains of Napoleon Bonaparte were returned with great ceremony to Paris and handed over to Louis-Napoleon's old enemy, King Louis-Philippe, while Louis-Napoleon could only read about it in prison.
On 25 Maywith the assistance of his doctor and other friends on the outside, he disguised himself as a laborer carrying lumber, and walked out of the prison. His enemies later derisively called him "Badinguet", the name of the laborer whose identity he had assumed.
A carriage was waiting to take him to the coast and then by boat to England. A month after his escape, his father Louis died, making Louis-Napoleon the clear heir to the Bonaparte dynasty.
He went back to his studies at the British Museum. He had an affair with the actress Rachelthe most famous French actress of the period, during her tours to Britain. More important for his future career, he had an affair with the wealthy heiress Harriet Howard — They had met insoon after his return to Britain. They began to live together, she took in his two illegitimate children and raised them with her own son, and she provided financing for his political plans so that, when the moment came, he could return to France.
He was sentenced to prison for life in the Fortress of Ham in Northern France. The room in the fortress of Ham where Louis-Napoleon studied, wrote, and conducted scientific experiments.
He later often referred to what he had learned at "the University of Ham. He met the wealthy heiress Harriet Howard in She became his mistress and helped fund his return to France. Louis Napoleon as a member of the National Assembly in He spoke rarely in the Assembly, but, because of his name, had enormous popularity in the country. In FebruaryLouis Napoleon learned that the French Revolution of had broken out, and that Louis-Philippe, faced with opposition within his government and army, had abdicated.
Believing that his time had finally come, he set out for Paris on 27 February, departing England on the same day that Louis-Philippe left France for his own exile in England. When he arrived in Paris, he found that the Second Republic had been declared, led by a Provisional Government headed by a Commission led by Alphonse de Lamartineand that different factions of republicans, from conservatives to those on the far left, were competing for power.
Napoleon III, Emperor of the French () - omarcafini.info
He wrote to Lamartine announcing his arrival, saying that he "was without any other ambition than that of serving my country. In the next elections, on 4 June, where candidates could run in multiple departments, he was elected in four different departments; in Paris, he was among the top five candidates, just after the conservative leader Adolphe Thiers and Victor Hugo.
His followers were mostly on the left; from the peasantry and working class. He wrote to the President of the Provisional Government: Hundreds of barricades appeared in the working-class neighborhoods. General Cavaignac, the leader of the army, first withdrew his soldiers from Paris to allow the insurgents to deploy their barricades, and then returned with overwhelming force to crush the uprising; from 24 to 26 June, there were battles in the streets of the working class districts of Paris.
An estimated five thousand insurgents were killed at the barricades; fifteen thousand were arrested, and four thousand deported. He was still in London on 17—18 September, when the elections for the National Assembly were held, but he was a candidate in thirteen departments. He was elected in five departments; in Paris, he receivedvotes of thecast, the highest number of votes of any candidate.
He returned to Paris on 24 September, and this time he took his place in the National Assembly. In seven months, he had gone from a political exile in London to a highly visible place in the National Assembly, as the government finished the new Constitution and prepared for the first election ever of a President of the French Republic.
The new constitution of the Second Republicdrafted by a commission including Alexis de Tocquevillecalled for a strong executive and a president elected by popular vote, through universal male suffrage, rather than chosen by the National Assembly. Louis-Napoleon promptly announced his candidacy.
There were four other candidates for the post; General Cavaignac, who had led the suppression of the June uprisings in Paris; Lamartine, the poet-philosopher and leader of the provisional government; Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollinthe leader of the socialists; and Raspailthe leader of the far left wing of the socialists.
He was accompanied by his companion, Harriet Howard, who gave him a large loan to help finance his campaign. He rarely went to the sessions of the National Assembly, and rarely voted. He was not a gifted orator; he spoke slowly, in a monotone, with a slight German accent from his Swiss education. His opponents sometimes ridiculed him, one comparing him to "a turkey who believes he's an eagle.
His election manifesto proclaimed his support for "religion, family, property, the eternal basis of all social order. Louis-Napoleon won the grudging endorsement of the conservative leader, Adolphe Thierswho believed he could be the most easily controlled; Thiers called him "of all the candidates, the least bad. The elections were held on 10—11 December, and results announced on 20 December. Louis-Napoleon was widely expected to win, but the size of his victory surprised almost everyone.
He won 5, votes, or The socialist Ledru-Rollin received ,; the extreme left candidate Raspail received 37, and the poet Lamartine received only 17, votes. Louis-Napoleon won the support of all segments of the population: He won the votes of Louis Napoleon's essay, "The Extinction of Pauperism", advocating reforms to help the working class, was widely circulated during the election campaign.
Adolphe Thiers recommended that he wear clothing of "democratic simplicity," but, following the model of his uncle, he chose instead the uniform of the General-in-Chief of the National Guard, and chose the title of "Prince-President. He also made his first venture into foreign policy, in Italy, where as a youth he had joined in the patriotic uprising against the Austrians. The previous government had sent an expeditionary force to Rome to help restore the temporal authority of Pope Pius IXwho was being threatened by the troops of the Italian republicans Mazzini and Garibaldi.
The French troops came under fire from Garibaldi's soldiers. The Prince-President, without consulting his ministers, ordered his soldiers to fight if needed in support of the Pope. This was very popular with French Catholics, but infuriated the republicans, who supported Garibaldi.
To gain support from the Catholics, he approved the Loi Falloux inwhich restored a greater role for the Catholic Church in the French educational system. The socialists and "red" republicans, led by Ledru-Rollin and Raspail, also did well, winning two hundred seats. The moderate republicans, in the middle, did very badly, taking just seats. The Party of Order had a clear majority, enough to block any initiatives of Louis-Napoleon.
Outmanoeuvred by Count Cavour, who confronted him with a unified Italy instead of the weak federation he had intended, he received Nice and Savoy as a reward. His activities in Italy displeased the British.
Despite the conclusion of an Anglo-French commercial treaty inthey remained suspicious and apprehensively watched his construction of armoured warships and his colonial and oriental policies. He intensified the extension of French power in Indochina and West Africa. In the Middle East the Emperor hoped that a better treatment of the Algerians would have a favourable influence on the Arabs from Tunisia to the Euphrates. He supported the construction of the Suez Canal.
When the Roman Catholic Maronites who were under French protection in Lebanon were persecuted inhe hoped to profit politically by dispatching an expeditionary force. Attempts at reform In Napoleon III believed his regime to be stable enough to grant certain freedoms.
The commercial treaty with Great Britain was to be the beginning of a new economic policy based on free-trade principles, with the aim of increasing prosperity and decreasing the cost of living. A deterioration in the economy caused dissatisfaction among the middle class and the working people, who joined the Catholics, angered by his anti-papal Italian policy, to become a steadily growing opposition.
In the elections of only five members of the opposition had gained seats in the National Assembly; six years later there were At this very time, repeated bladder-stone attacks temporarily incapacitated the Emperor, who had been in poor health since He had always insisted on exercising control over all decisions of government; in his ministers he had seen nothing but tools.
Now, he became dependent on persons in his entourage who formed groups and intrigued against each other. But his concessions freedom of coalition infreedom of assembly inextension of the rights of members of parliament, and liberalization of the press laws were restricted by too many reservations and came too late.
He allowed Victor Duruyhis minister of education fromto fight clerical influence in education, yet on the other hand he tried to reconcile French Catholics by working for a compromise settlement in disputes between the papacy and the new Italian kingdom.
He had expected material rewards for France and also hoped that the planned kingdom would check the growing influence of the United States in Latin America. In Europe when the Polish insurrection broke out inhe did not, in spite of his sympathy, dare to support Poland against Russia. Nevertheless, such sympathies led to an estrangement from Russia. He did not, however, openly tell Bismarck what price he demanded for his help.
When inafter routing Denmark, Prussia turned on its former ally, Austria, and defeated it more quickly than Napoleon had expected, he refused any armed intervention in its favour and only acted as mediator. The retreat of Prussian troops from the fortress Luxemburg was no satisfactory reward: The new Cabinet informed Great Britain and Prussia that France was ready to disarm, but Bismarck refused to cooperate. On July 2 it became known that a Hohenzollern prince, a relative of the king of Prussia, was a candidate for the Spanish throne.
In Paris this was regarded as Prussian interference in a French sphere of interest and a threat to security. Using his favourite means of secret diplomacy, Napoleon played a major part in causing the Hohenzollern prince to renounce his candidature.
Louis-Napoleon recovered but Napoleon-Louis died of the disease in March This family tree should help you get it all straight. With his military background he even wrote an artillery manual used by the Swiss army … and with the support of the Bonapartist activists, Louis-Napoleon tried twice to seize power by force.
The first time in Strasbourg 30 October he failed and was taken prisoner. Instead of returning to the United States, he settled in London, England. Louis-Napoleon decided this was the right time to try to take power. He arrived in Boulogne-sur-Mer on the night of 5 to 6 Augustbut this attempt was also a failure. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, and incarcerated in the fortress of Ham in the Somme northern France.
Though imprisoned, Louis-Napoleon was allowed to read, study, and receive visits. There he wrote an important book, a political manifesto against the poverty of the working class, entitled: And it was quite an adventure! Since renovation work was being done on his cell, he was able to escape disguised as one of the labourers, walking out the main gates of the prison carrying a large plank on his shoulder to hide his face.
Louis-Napoleon took refuge in London. The conquest of power: The Second French Republic was established, to be headed by a President of the Republic elected by universal male suffrage all men over 21 could vote, regardless of their earnings. The president was to govern with the help of a council of ministers; a National Legislative Assembly was to be formed in which to discuss and pass laws.
He became President of the new Republic, for a single term of four years. Inhe tried to change the constitution in order to run again but the Legislative Assembly refused.
Moreover, Napoleon did not approve the Law of 31 Maywhich limited the universal male suffrage. This was an important symbolic date: On the morning of 2 DecemberLouis Napoleon proclaimed the dissolution of the National Legislative Assembly, the restoration of universal male suffrage, and announced new elections.
He asked the army to occupy Paris in order to prevent any opposition. Parisians revolted and put up road blocks, but the opposition was even greater in the rest of the country: Seventy-six percent of voters accepted the coup and thus confirmed Louis-Napoleon in power. In Januarya new constitution gave power to the Prince President for a period of ten years. But Napoleon II only reigned officially for a few days, after which the imperial regime was replaced by the monarchical regime of the Restoration.
On 16 Marchtheir only son, the Prince Imperial, was born.