Learn how to understand cultures and build relationships with people from other cultures. Cultural relations are reciprocal, non-coercive transnational interactions between two or more cultures, encompassing a range of activities that are conducted. The relationship between language and culture is complex yet one is a part of the other. You learn the culture once you start learning a.
In essence, theorists have added several components to the theory: Note here the total absence of affect or emotion. The person is a teacher who gives us grades, or an attractive person who may give us attention, etc. Even a stranger on the bus, if standing on her head and pulling the bus cord with her toes, would lead us to want to try to predict or explain her behavior.
The theory was drafted in the s, long before Facebook. Note presence of this type of strategy in the axioms. Specifically, he contends that as we are better able to control manage--M our emotional apprehension A and our cognitive ability to predict and explain the other Uour relationships will more likely develop. One of his main contributions to the field was focusing on the development of theory in a series of edited volumes, and handbooks. However, several critiques of his URT work including Kellerman, Sunnafrank, and othershe began to modify his original theory.
If you get a chance to read one of the original writings by Gudykunst, you will note that the theory has blossomed from a mere 13 axioms in to 94 axioms in the version 47 axioms, but then an addition of a Hofstede dimension to show how each might change from one type of culture to another. InGudykunst narrowed the axioms back down to only You must know these 47 axioms for Quiz.
Gudykunst has tried to group the massive number of variables in different ways. Inhe clustered the axioms around ideas of self, motivation, cognitive capacity, and so on the middle column in the figure below. One author tries to visualize AUM in this fashion: For now, we are concerned only about how the theory has changed to differ from URT.
We must be in some way aware of or thinking about our interaction.The relationship between purpose, brand, and culture.
Okay, there is more to mindfulness than that, but that is enough for our Webpage! That is, we need some level of uncertainty and anxiety to even be interested or involved in an interaction, but not so much as to bail out.
That is, he notes that for each axiom, the relationship between the variables might change depending on whether one is from a collectivist or individualist culture or based on one of the other dimensions, whichever is most important to the axiom. Aside from the criticisms that Gudykunst has used to modify his theory, others have claimed that the theory, whether it has 94 or 47 axioms, is not heuristic.
Gudykunst defends the theory, noting that there is a balance between heurism and practical utility. A theory with few axioms that are broadly stated is harder to apply in training and research.
But a theory that is very specific, while losing in heurism, is easier to apply. AUM tends to still be a frequently cited theory in intercultural communication today.
Cultural relations - Wikipedia
As I have said in class, in most intercultural communication, I see two things at work. One is "real" cultural differences and one is "perceived" differences stereotypes, etc. In relationships, I see the same two areas, though they play out slightly differently. Several authors try to lay out the problems that intercultural couples may face. The following lists come from psychologists based on their practice Romano, ; Tseng, ; Markoff, and from in-depth interviews of intercultural couples Telser-Gadow, They find through interviews that intracultural couples in Hawaii rate different problems as salient in their marriages than intercultural marriages.
The two lists are as follows: That is, intercultural couples have more external problems e. However, this study is a self-report.
Just as in the studies above, we do not know if these are the real problems or are perceived problems. In her article she reviews this in simpler terms and gives a practical list for each "side" in dealing with conflict with the other. Tsenga psychologist in Hawaiiderives five ways he sees relational partners resolving cultural differences. Since they are foundation, we should know them: One partner gives in to the culture of the other; usually it is the wife, or it is the partner who is in the other person's culture.
The couple alternates between cultural styles--first one partner's then the other's. Might vary with which aspect of life say, public life, wife's culture; private life, husbands or where the couple lives adopts to whichever culture they are in.
Elements of both cultures are adopted at the same time. For example, someone might go to the doctor at the same time as they treat themself with herbal medicine. This seems to me to be a alternative adjustment at a micro level. Within a given culture or time, the couple uses aspects of one culture or the other. Tseng uses an example like "enchiladas tonight, sushi tomorrow night. Romano seems to include all of these under one category: Compromise as opposed to submission, consensus, or obliteration.
Here the couple adopts elements of neither culture, but finds their "own" way--They decide to be neither Budhist or Christian but both become Muslim.
They sort of create a "third culture" which is all their own. While this might occur in certain elements of culture, I am not sure how realistically it could occur in every aspect of relationship. Important questions to ask in the whole issue of cultural adjustment in romantic relationships--especially before marriage becomes an issue, are -what are the motives for the partners involved? In most cases, the woman is expected to adopt to the man's. Is it acceptable by both partners?
In such settings you can talk about the misinformation you acquired without being offensive to people from a particular group. You can get together with a friend or two and talk about how you acquired stereotypes or fears of other different people. You can answer these kinds of questions: How did your parents feel about different ethnic, racial, or religious groups?
What did your parents communicate to you with their actions and words? Were your parents friends with people from many different groups? What did you learn in school about a particular group? Was there a lack of information about some people? Are there some people you shy away from? Ask people questions about their cultures, customs, and views People, for the most part, want to be asked questions about their lives and their cultures. Many of us were told that asking questions was nosy; but if we are thoughtful, asking questions can help you learn about people of different cultures and help build relationships.
People are usually pleasantly surprised when others show interest in their cultures. If you are sincere and you can listen, people will tell you a lot. Read about other people's cultures and histories It helps to read about and learn about people's cultures and histories.
If you know something about the reality of someone's life and history, it shows that you care enough to take the time to find out about it. It also gives you background information that will make it easier to ask questions that make sense. However, you don't have to be an expert on someone's culture to get to know them or to ask questions. People who are, themselves, from a culture are usually the best experts, anyway.
Don't forget to care and show caring It is easy to forget that the basis of any relationship is caring. Everyone wants to care and be cared about.
Relationships and Culture
Caring about people is what makes a relationship real. Don't let your awkwardness around cultural differences get in the way of caring about people. Listen to people tell their stories If you get an opportunity to hear someone tell you her life story first hand, you can learn a lot--and build a strong relationship at the same time. Every person has an important story to tell. Each person's story tells something about their culture.
Listening to people's stories, we can get a fuller picture of what people's lives are like--their feelings, their nuances, and the richness of their lives. Listening to people also helps us get through our numbness-- there is a real person before us, not someone who is reduced to stereotypes in the media. Additionally, listening to members of groups that have been discriminated against can give us a better understanding of what that experience is like. Listening gives us a picture of discrimination that is more real than what we can get from reading an article or listening to the radio.
You can informally ask people in your neighborhood or organization to tell you a part of their life stories as a member of a particular group. You can also incorporate this activity into a workshop or retreat for your group or organization.
Have people each take five or ten minutes to talk about one piece of their life stories. If the group is large, you will probably have to divide into small groups, so everyone gets a chance to speak. Notice differences in communication styles and values; don't assume that the majority's way is the right way.
We all have a tendency to assume that the way that most people do things is the acceptable, normal, or right way. As community workers, we need to learn about cultural differences in values and communication styles, and not assume that the majority way is the right way to think or behave. You are in a group discussion.
Some group members don't speak up, while others dominate, filling all the silences. The more vocal members of the group become exasperated that others don't talk.
It also seems that the more vocal people are those that are members of the more mainstream culture, while those who are less vocal are from minority cultures.
How do we understand this? How can this be resolved? In some cultures, people feel uncomfortable with silence, so they speak to fill the silences. In other cultures, it is customary to wait for a period of silence before speaking.
If there aren't any silences, people from those cultures may not ever speak.
Also, members of some groups women, people of low income, some racial and ethnic minorities, and others don't speak up because they have received messages from society at large that their contribution is not as important as others; they have gotten into the habit of deferring their thinking to the thinking of others.
When some people don't share their thinking, we all lose out. We all need the opinions and voices of those people who have traditionally been discouraged from contributing. In situations like the one described above, becoming impatient with people for not speaking is usually counter-productive. However, you can structure a meeting to encourage the quieter people to speak. For example, you can: Have people break into pairs before discussing a topic in the larger group.
At certain times have each person in the circle make a comment. People can pass if they want to. Follow a guideline that everyone speaks once, before anyone speaks twice. Invite the quieter people to lead part of the meeting. Talk about the problem openly in a meeting, and invite the more vocal people to try to speak less often. Between meetings, ask the quieter people what would help them speak, or ask them for their ideas on how a meeting should be run. A high school basketball team has to practice and play on many afternoons and evenings.
The coach is angry with the parents for this requirement, because it takes his player away from the team. Families have different values, especially when it comes to family closeness, loyalty, and responsibility. In many immigrant and ethnic families, young people are required to put their family's needs first, before the requirements of extra-curricular activities. Young people from immigrant families who grow up in the U.
As community workers, we need to support and respect minority and immigrant families and their values.